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Excited electron energy is subsequently utilized in ATP synthesis.

3.6.1 Photosynthesis 290

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2-13) serve as electron donors in photosynthetic bacteria.

PNNL scientists are investigating the interaction of light with nanomaterial films for potential energy applications. This optical microscope image shows an edge region of a nanomaterial film. Multi-colored sections indicate different thicknesses of the film.

Plant photosynthesis takes place only in the presence of visible light (400-700 nm).

2-1), the net reaction, following equations 2-1 through 2-4 is:

CO2 + 10 photons + H2O = CH2O + 1/2O2.
Figure 2.1 - Schematic representation of mechanisms involved in plant photosynthesis Experimental data indicates that between 8 and 12 photons are required for fixation of one molecule of CO2.

and Prince, R.C., In "The Photosynthetic Bacteria" Eds.

Since the energy equivalent of one photon (700 nm) is approximately 170 kJ/E, and the change in free energy during the fixation of CO2 is approximately 450 U/mol, the energy efficiency of this process for monochromatic light of a wavelength of 700 nm is estimated to be approximately 21-33%.

As the active materials in OPVs are carbon based, these are generally very scalable materials. The production methods for OPV include printing from solvents or evaporation of molecules through vacuum. Both are amenable for large area deposition, with somewhat different potential speed of production and capital costs of equipment. Printing is the faster and cheaper, and rapidly scalable to produce large areas of photovoltaic modules on the global scale.

Chapter 2 - Energy conversion by photosynthetic …

Since visible light accounts for about 45% of all solar energy, the maximum achievable energy efficiency for CO2 fixation using solar radiation is approximately 13%.

Bacterial photosynthesis is thought to be a relatively old form of photosynthesis.

High performance dye sensitized solar cells, where an organic compound in contact with a high band gap inorganic semiconductor (e.g., TiO2, ZnO, ZrO2) generates charge upon photon absorption, still require a redox liquid electrolyte for best performance. Alternative redox design using cobalt compounds has improved efficiencies to 13 %. Solid state versions of the dye sensitized solar cells have lower PCE. A new inorganic absorber, a perovskite based on lead halogen compound first used for dye sensitized solar cells, has rapidly demonstrated that this compound can be used at its best (18 % power conversion efficiency) in thin film geometries (Jeon Jeon et al. ), as optical absorption and electronic transport is sufficient in this material; the advantages of the dye sensitized cells are thereby removed for this absorber.

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  • PHOTOSYNTHESIS Table of Contents ..

    Photosynthesis is often regarded as a CO2 anabolic reaction, whereby glucose is formed from CO2 and water.

  • Photosynthesis Lab Manual - York University

    CO2 anabolism is an energy-consuming reaction in that it utilizes chemical energy produced by photosynthesis.

  • Photosynthetic Organisms - Plants, Algae, Cyanobacteria

    In its narrowest sense, photosynthesis can be regarded as a process whereby energy is supplied for CO2 anabolism.

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The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis

Silicon- or carbon-based materials, which can be scaled up, deliver 25 % (Si) and 12–13 % (carbon based) power conversion efficiency in best lab devices. Several of the competing thin film technologies suffer from a dependence on rare or toxic materials which reduces their potential to play a significant role when photovoltaics will be used in large-scale systems. Therefore, the use of earth abundant materials or efficient recycling concepts will be important for large-scale deployment of the technologies. Removing materials limitations due to less abundant elements (for active materials e.g., indium, gallium, tellurium, for current collectors silver) by substitution with more abundant elements (e.g., zinc, sulfur or copper, aluminum) will be a general and critical target.

Section 16.3 Photosynthetic Stages and Light-Absorbing Pigments

The combination of silicon PV with compound semiconductors (thin film III-V compounds or nanowires) in hybrid tandem photovoltaic promises big improvements of power conversion efficiencies, and may be one of the most attractive pathways for rapid improvement in PCE. Also these approaches can benefit from the advances in silicon photovoltaic like lower material costs and enhanced manufacturing technologies.

Genetic Modification Improves Photosynthetic Efficiency

Photosynthetic bacteria are also capable of reducing electron carriers such as NAD, via a linear reaction similar to the electron transmission which occurs during plant photosynthesis (Figure 2-2).

the conversion of sunlight energy into biomass—is one of ..

Although it has generally been thought that two photons give rise to the formation of two ATP molecules, some researchers claim that three photons are involved (3).

Solar energy conversion through seaweed photosynthesis …

Figure 2.2 - Schematic representation of mechanisms involved in bacterial photosynthesis CO2-fixing reactions do not produce energy during bacterial photosynthesis (i.e equimolar amounts of organic compounds are produced through decomposition of organic compounds), except when sulfur compounds serve as electron carriers.

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