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was introduced in its current form by William Farmer in 1964

Farmer argues that Mark modeled his Gospel on the Petrine speeches in Acts, which don't include the infancy narrative.

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but one of the most common is “the Griesbach hypothesis ..

The main argument supporting the direct literary relationship between Matthew and Luke seems to be the "minor agreements" of Matthew and Luke. If one assumes that all minor agreements arose from a single cause, as Farmer appears to argue, then the advocates of the Griesbach hypothesis contend that the phenomenon becomes impressive. Nevertheless, at the risk of the atomization of the phenomena, many scholars would agree with B. H. Streeter that there are different reasons for these "minor agreements." Some may be attributed to the omission of unnecessary or unimportant Markan words or the correction of linguistically inadmissable words used by Mark. Others may be due to the influence of Q in sections where Mark and Q overlap. Certainly the minor agreements present a real problem for the Two Source Hypothesis, but it must be remembered that they constitute only a small percentage of the data on the total Synoptic Problem. Weighed against the evidence for Markan priority, they hardly warrant the abandonment of the Two Source Hypothesis. In the final analysis, the principal difficulties with the revival of the Griesbach hypothesis are that it fails to explain why Mark omitted so much of Matthew's material and to explain sufficiently the similar ordering of the material in Matthew and Mark. Since the sequence of material in Matthew, Mark, and Luke is the same only when Matthew and Luke agree with Mark, it would appear that K. Lachmann (1935) was correct when he held Mark to be the source used by Matthew and Luke.

Griesbach hypothesis), was introduced in its current form by William Farmer in 1964

Marsh's theory has an important contact with the 2SH, namely, the postulation of a Q-like hypothetical sayings source, Beth, that is largely responsible for the double tradition. Since Marsh offered a Griesbach-like explanation for the origin of Mark as a conflation of Aleph 1 (proto-Matthew) and Aleph 2 (proto-Luke), however, Marsh should not deserve credit as the originator of the 2SH. A modern variant of Marsh's theory is P. Rolland's Hypothesis.

William Farmer, an ardent proponent of the "Griesbach ..

The Griesbach hypothesis proposed by W

The opposite position - that Mark has altered the sequence of Matthew or Luke - offers no clarification in any of the cases mentioned (Wood offers other examples), so that the hypothesis of Griesbach, according to which Mark has excerpted the other two synoptists, is disproved, as well as the theory that Mark has used and abbreviated either Matthew or Luke.

The Farrer Hypotheis (FH) is also a Markan priority solution, but dispenses with Q as unnecessary, holding that Luke's use of Matthew is sufficiently plausible (; ; ; cf. ; ; ). The Farrer Hypothesis is the leading contender to the 2SH in England and is beginning to have some in-roads in North America.

theory by the Griesbach hypothesis ..

The Griesbach hypothesis seems less probable, since a motive

Parker II: A half-century later, augmented his previous theory by adopting 's suggestion for a proto-Luke as the source of the Q and L material (), and then mixed in the Griesbach hypothesis by making Mark a conflation of proto-Matthew () and proto-Luke ().

dWH: In this mid-19th century configuration, Mark conflated Matthew and Luke, but both Matthew and Luke were dependent on an Ur-Gospel(; [ET ]). This hypothesis had been perceived as a concession to Q within the Griesbach camp.

and the similar Griesbach hypothesis, ..
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    Farmer (1) ..

  • Synoptic Problem Website: Two-Source Hypothesis

    Farmer; 2

  • Synoptic Problem Website: Overview of Proposed …


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This web page is a summary of the arguments for the priority of Mark

Weisse's views did not immediately establish a following. He was a lone voice during a period that was dominated by the Tübingen school, who found the Griesbach hypothesis amenable to their rigid conception of the development of history in accordance with the Hegelian dialectic. Specifically, they saw Matthew as the Jewish thesis, Luke as the Gentile antithesis, and Mark as the mediating synthesis. However, the excesses of the school led a questioning of all their positions created a favorable climate for other approaches the synoptic problem. Holtzmann (1863) investigated his predecessors and organized his theory around a narrative source he called Alpha (A). Noticing that Matthew and Luke rarely agreed against Mark, Alpha's nature so closely resembled Mark that Holtzmann called it an Ur-Markus. With a Mark-like source, there needs to be a saying source. which Holtzmann termed Lambda (L) for the logia. Holtzmann's work came out when members of the Tübingen school were retiring, and the new generation of scholars quickly and enthusiastically adopted Holtzmann's Markan hypothesis.

The notions and divisions of suicide; II

Storr's and Marsh's views passed out of favor and left no direct effect on the course of the synoptic problem. By the 1830s, when the consensus was coalescing around the Griesbach hypothesis, especially in the work of the Tübingen school, two scholars, F. E. D. Schleiermacher and Karl Lachmann, laid the groundwork for what would become the two fundamental tenets of the 2SH.

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In 1955 a British scholar, A. M. Farrer, proposed that one could dispense with Q by arguing that Luke revised both Mark and Matthew. In 1965 an American scholar, William R. Farmer, also seeking to do away with the need for Q, revived an updated version of Griesbach's idea that Mark condensed both Matthew and Luke. In Britain, the most influential modern opponents of the 2SH favor the , while Farmer's revised Griesbach hypothesis, also known as the Two Gospel hypothesis, is probably the chief rival to the Two Source hypothesis in America.

Two-gospel hypothesis explained

For example, G. Ch. Storr, one of Griesbach's contemporary challengers, arguing that Mark, not Matthew, was the earliest, and that both Matthew and Luke used Mark (; see generally : 7, : 51). For the double tradition, however, Storr was undecided about whether Luke used Matthew, virtually anticipating the Farrer Hypothesis, or whether Matthew's translator used Luke.

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