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This connector allows the synthesizer to connect to an RS-232 port. Note that two possible pin-outs are possible, based on whether the board is configured as a DCE or a DTE.

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The Modbus/RTU over RS-485 protocol is used in an environment where the synthesizer output frequency must be changed over time. The Modbus/RTU protocol provides an industry-standard mechanism to achieve this. The RS-485 physical-layer provides a multi-drop bus, which permits multiple devices to attach to the bus by tapping off the differential-pair transmission line.

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Often a student will ask if a "plasma speaker" would form the basis of a good EEI. Plasma speakers are a form of loudspeaker which varies air pressure via a high-energy electrical plasma instead of a solid (cone) diaphragm as in a normal speaker. When the plasma speakers are connected to the output of an audio amplifier, the plasma glow discharge acts as a massless radiating element, creating the compression waves in air that you hear as sound. In essence it is a circuit that produces a high frequency voltage modulated by an audio frequency (some variants simply use the 555 Timer IC for this). The modulated result is fed to a flyback transformer (via a power Mosfet) to produce a high voltage high frequency arc. The audio modulation of the arc causes it to produce (Low-Fi) sound. However, the high voltages and heat involved make this a real electrocution and fire hazard. Physics teacher Craig Airton from Tannum Sands SHS (Queensland) said: "I had a student build one of these two years ago. It was fully functional and had quite impressive sound quality, however, he burnt holes in the carpet at his house and received electric shocks (not burns). I would not approve it again due to the high risk".

If you are keen to see what they are all about have a look at . What you must ask is "could it make a good EEI?" The problem is, if you are doing a "manipulated variable" EEI then you have to decide what variable you are going to change (the independent variable) and what you are going to measure (the dependent variable). Then you have to propose a hypothesis linking the two conceptually (and maybe mathematically) and then provide a justification for your hypothesis using physics concepts, fact and principles. No easy task for a Year 12 student. The chances of a good mark maybe very slim so think carefully before you press ahead. In fact, when you do your risk assessment you will probably find the hazards of electric shock, fire, UV radiation and X-Rays are too great.

13KB2/ This is the schematic manual for the President Jackson 1.77MB

When a test tube of hydrogen gas pops, a flame front travels down the tube as the gas burns. The temperature rises quickly to 3000K. Because it is so explosive, a compression wave (with a pressure of about 7 atmospheres and speed of some 3000 m/s) travels down the tube and possibly reflects off the closed end and then travels back up the tube in the heated gaseous products. In the video you can see where I recorded the 'pop' with the audio program Audacity. From that you can analyse the waveform for frequency and see if it varies with time. Does the frequency or 'envelope shape' depend on the diameter or length of the tube (for Physics students); or even the H2/O2 ratio (for Chemistry students). This is so much fun. I've analysed the sound from the clip above using Soundbooth and Audacity and it looks like the images below. If you want a audio recording of the pop to try out, .

Hydrogen is likely to be the most important future energy source with the potential to make significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Safe use of hydrogen by the public requires that the safety issues have to be investigated. Its behaviour in accident scenarios has to be predicted, allowing safety measures to be developed where necessary. A key factor in this process is predicting the release, dispersion and combustion of hydrogen in appropriate scenarios. Investigating the events of a hydrogen 'pop' in a tube can be most instructive.

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  • If such is the case, I give contact or source details were available.

    If you have questions about applicability or performance detail, ; demonstrator models are available for evaluations.

  • Some stuff is positively ancient.

    Synthesizer - Wikipedia

  • I have been working on this synthesizer for many years.

    Options based on a modular design concept permit a high degree of adaptation to a customer’s specific needs.

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The output signal level is programmed via a DC control voltage.


At some stage in science class you will have tested for hydrogen gas by placing a lit match to a test tube full of the gas. You would have heard the distinctive 'pop' sound as it ignited. Wouldn't it be great if setting fire to hydrogen was your EEI?

Now they are considered "vintage".


The electric guitar pickup works on electromagnetic induction principles. A permanent magnet induces magnetism in a steel string and when the string moves its magnetic field induces a tiny electric current in a coil of wire. This current is amplified after it leaves the guitar and fed into loudspeakers. The electric guitar pickup was developed in the 1950s and has changed little over the following 60 years probably because it was so simple and worked so well. It makes a terrific EEI.

HOW IT WORKS: The 4060 is a crystal oscillator/divider.

However, here's the question: what constitutes an "open" end? If a ceramic tile (or any hard surface) was placed 1 cm away would the end still be "open"? What if it was 10 cm away - and so on? I tried this and found a delightful result. Yes, from about 0.75 cm to 6 cm there is a variation in resonant frequency but outside of that - nothing. The experiment is quite simply done but - be warned - the physics of gas behaviour at the end has not been studied much and would challenge university physics students. But this doesn't mean you can't get some great data to explore; and discuss the situation in high school physics terms. This would be a fabulous EEI.

Unfortunately that other key ingredient, money, was hard to find.

What variables can be used: the size of the current depends on the number of turns ("wraps") of wire in the coil, its resistance and the cross-sectional area of the coil. The most common arrangement in a real guitar is about 5000 turns of a very fine copper wire (42 gauge, 0.064 mm diameter, insulated with an enamelled coating (not plastic-coated that you are familiar with from the lab)). Varying the number of turns also varies the resistance. The induced current also depends on the magnetic field strength of the steel wire string, the distance between string and coil and so on. Lastly, the magnetism in the string depends on the strength of the permanent magnet, its distance away, and the size of the string.

The 10KHz frequency is used for channel spacing.


A fascinating EEI can be made out of a pipe experiment similar to the one above - but using an "open" pipe. If you slap one end of an open pipe with a piece of soft foam (rubber 'thong' or 'flip-flop', or even a piece of polystyrene foam) the air in the pipe resonates. The loudest frequency is the fundamental providing you have chosen a pipe of suitable length that resonates in the audible range. A length of 60 cm is a good start. When the compression wave travelling down the pipe meets the outside air at the end, the wave is partially reflected (and partially transmitted). It is the reflected wave that sets up the resonance condition that you will have learnt about in class (f = v/2L). You need to include end correction into your calculations ( = 0.6133r for each end).

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