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Analogist () One who reasons from analogy, or represent, by analogy.

Acquittal () A setting free, or deliverance from the charge of an offense, by verdict of a jury or sentence of a court.

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Anemogram () A record made by an anemograph.

Ape () A quadrumanous mammal, esp. of the family Simiadae, having teeth of the same number and form as in man, and possessing neither a tail nor cheek pouches. The name is applied esp. to species of the genus Hylobates, and is sometimes used as a general term for all Quadrumana. The higher forms, the gorilla, chimpanzee, and ourang, are often called anthropoid apes or man apes.

Alternate () A proportion derived from another proportion by interchanging the means.

Rosetti’s publication did not include cochineal, which only later in the sixteenth century displaced Kermes, mainly as a result of the voyages of Cortez (from 1523). Cochineal dyeing was improved in Holland around 1630, and the secrets of the new process were stolen by a German who carried the details to London.

Synthesis description for preparation of ANTHRAQUINONE

Antialbumid () A body formed from albumin by pancreatic and gastric digestion. It is convertible into antipeptone.

Annealing () The process used to render glass, iron, etc., less brittle, performed by allowing them to cool very gradually from a high heat.

Anhydride () An oxide of a nonmetallic body or an organic radical, capable of forming an acid by uniting with the elements of water; -- so called because it may be formed from an acid by the abstraction of water.


Aldehyde () A colorless, mobile, and very volatile liquid obtained from alcohol by certain processes of oxidation.

The conditions of sale had been agreed on 1 October 1982, and early in the following year ICI Francolor SA was created, a wholly owned subsidiary of ICI incorporating its former sales agency, ICI France.[67] ICI had thus inherited not only the interests of the successors to Perkin, Simpson, Maule & Nicholson, Levinstein, the Hollidays, and Morton, but also the innovative tradition established by Poirrier at Saint Denis, Paris, where in the 1860s the new alkylation of aniline process was first conducted. Not far away, at Villers Saint Paul dye making was fully computerized in 1982, while at Oissel, "red and yellow azo dyes are synthesized by a continuous process. This is believed to be the first and only one of its kind in the world."

There were also upheavals in Britain. In 1981, the British Economic Development Committee for the Chemical Industry predicted the decline of production in Western Europe (mainly Britain, Germany, and Switzerland) due to the emergence of manufacturers in Eastern Europe and the Far East. This led to considerable reorganization. Thus the former Yorkshire Dyeware & Chemical Co., known as Yorkshire Chemicals Limited from 1971 (by which time natural dye preparations had been replaced by the manufacture of synthetics), was particularly vigorous in promotion of its products. New outlets were established in Europe (especially Italy), the Far East, and in the United States as Yorkshire Pat-Chem, Inc. Today the color division of Yorkshire Chemicals plc is based in Leeds, while specialty products are manufactured at Selby, North Yorkshire

Albuminose () A diffusible substance formed from albumin by the action of natural or artificial gastric juice. See Peptone.
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  • The Chemistry of Anthraquinone. - Chemical Reviews …

    Adhesion () Union of surface, normally separate, by the formation of new tissue resulting from an inflammatory process.

  • Anthracene is converted mainly to anthraquinone, a precursor to dyes.

    Adoration () A method of electing a pope by the expression of homage from two thirds of the conclave.

  • Synthesis and properties of new 9,10-anthraquinone …

    Agate () A tool used by gold-wire drawers, bookbinders, etc.; -- so called from the agate fixed in it for burnishing.

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Anthraquinone Synthesis, Anthraquinone ..

From the late 1870s the English dye-makers had become incapable of sustaining their earlier lead in technical development, and were unable to develop markets outside the British Empire. They lacked the commitment to manufacturing adopted by the Germans, who placed great emphasis on production and quality, backed up with product testing and customer service. This was carried over to later generations of dyestuffs, whereby new discoveries suited to the needs of consumers worldwide reached the market place in the shortest possible time. The British commitment to natural indigo ensured that the factory-made blue colorant was to be another German triumph.

The current Proposition 65 list is dated December 29, 2017

Information about the constitution of indigo had been obtained by Baeyer from the mid 1860s, and he patented a synthesis in 1880. The problem of commercialization was that, unlike in the case of alizarin and the other coal tar dyes there was no ready made carbon skeleton of coal tar hydrocarbon molecules to transform into the blue colorant. The framework had to be created first.

hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, carotenoids - Lipid

The 1883 tariff change was not the only reason for increased German imports. The alizarin market was at first dominated by BASF through the Graebe and Liebermann patents and their reissues. This was upheld by the Alizarine Convention when Bayer attempted to develop the business in the United States through its Glasgow sales outlet. There were several disputes and court battles. What concerned the consumers was that as long as BASF had the monopoly in the United States the prices of both the natural and synthetic products were kept high. The matter reached the Supreme Court, and judgment went against BASF in 1884. The ruling was that a patent could not be taken out for a natural product, even if it was made by chemical synthesis. This meant that all the German alizarin manufacturers could now reach United States consumers. The price fell and the natural product declined rapidly, as it had done in Europe.

SDS Search - EH&S - WKU - Western Kentucky University

Initially this was via benzaldehyde made from toluene. Baeyer's research was backed by BASF and Hoechst, who were in competition to achieve artificial indigo. The laboratory work was assisted by Baeyer's 1860s constitutional formula for indigo. The structure became available in 1883, another triumph for Baeyer, then at the University of Munich. However, in the following years the scientific and technical leaders, Baeyer and Caro, became less involved in the indigo work.

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