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Geoaccumulation of benzoic acid has also been found to be low.

The estimated global production capacity for benzoic acid is about 600 000 tonnes per year.

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Table 5: Genotoxicity of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate in vitro.

Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate are used as food preservatives and are most suitable for foods, fruit juices, and soft drinks that are naturally in an acidic pH range.

Data on its precursors support the notion that benzoic acid is unlikely to be carcinogenic.
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However, benzoic acid adsorbed on silica gel (SiO2) and irradiated with UV light (lambda > 290 nm) for 17 h showed 10.2% photodegradation (Freitag et al., 1985).

Table 7: Aquatic toxicity of benzoic acid.

In humans, the acute toxicity of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate is low.
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8.6.1 Fertility There are no studies available dealing specifically with the effects of benzoic acid or sodium benzoate on fertility that have been conducted according to current protocols.

In a four-generation study with male and female rats, no adverse effects on fertility or lactation (only investigated parameters) were seen after dosing with benzoic acid at up to 1% in the diet (approximately 500 mg/kg body weight per day) (see also section 8.4.2; Kieckebusch & Lang, 1960).

(1983) Primary eye irritation of benzoic acid to rabbits.

Sixteen out of 71 deodorants tested contained benzoic acid (Rastogi et al., 1998).
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ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT, DISTRIBUTION, TRANSFORMATION, AND ACCUMULATION 5.1.1 Benzoic acid From its use pattern (see section 4), it can be expected that benzoic acid is released to surface waters and (from dumping sites) to leaching water (and groundwater).

Other anthropogenic releases of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate into the environment are emissions into water and soil from their uses as preservatives in food, toothpastes, mouthwashes, dentifrices, and cosmetics.

Benzyl alcohol was metabolized to benzoic acid and its conjugates in preterm infants.
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  • Benzoic Acid from the Oxidation of Toluene | Hobby …

    hydrochloric acid by will reduce it to a primary aromatic amine (–NH2 directly attached to benzene ring).

  • Oxidation of Benzaldehyde to Benzoic Acid with …

    Concentrations of naturally occurring benzoic acid in several foods did not exceed average values of 40 mg/kg of food.

  • Carboxylic acid synthesis by oxidation of alcohols

    Benzoic acid therefore occurs naturally in many foods, including milk products (Sieber et al., 1989, 1990).

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Synthesis of carboxylic acids by oxidation of alcohols

The minimum inhibitory concentrations of benzoic acid on the growth of several species of yeasts ranged from 170 to 1250 mg/litre in cultures preadapted to benzoic acid and from 100 to 600 mg/litre in unadapted cultures (pH 3.5; 25°C; 6 weeks of incubation) (Warth, 1988).

the in situ oxidation of 2-iodosobenzoic acid ..

No information on the toxic effects of benzoic acid or sodium benzoate on plants, earthworms, or other terrestrial organisms or on ecosystems was identified.

Preparation of benzaldehyde by oxidation of toluene

Growth inhibition of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum (related to dry weight) measured 5 days after incubation with 610 mg benzoic acid/litre was 23.7% at pH 7.2 and 83.5% at pH 4 (Soni & Bhatia, 1980).

Benzoic acid can be prepared by oxidation of ..

Minimum microbiocidal concentrations ranged from 20 to 1200 mg benzoic acid/litre in suspension tests (pH 6) with different bacterial or fungal species (Wallhäusser, 1984; Russell & Furr, 1996).

The preparation of benzoic acid by oxidation of toluol

As benzoic acid itself is only slightly soluble in water, sodium benzoate -- which, under acidic conditions, converts to undissociated benzoic acid -- is often used instead.

Oxidation of Toluene to Benzoic Acid Catalyzed by …

Benzoic acid is slightly irritating to the skin and irritating to the eye, whereas sodium benzoate is not irritating to the skin and is only a slight eye irritant.

Benzoic acid is produced commercially by partial oxidation of ..

As seen with daphnids, the pH value of the test medium influences the toxicity of benzoic acid, which proved to be more toxic at lower pH levels (Bringmann & Kuehn, 1980).

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