Quantum mechanics explains efficiency of photosynthesis UCL Quantum
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photosynthesis - definition - What is
The interaction between light and matter in photosynthesis, for instance when, sunlight shines on a leaf, can be described as an interaction of photons of light with the atoms of matter on the microscopic level. The high efficiency of this mechanism of nearly 100% suggests that it is subject to rules of quantum physics, which is difficult to simulate with classical computers and simple bits. In that case, information is represented by a switch that can store information as zero or one. Quantum bits, by contrast, are able to assume the states of zero and one at the same time according to quantum physics rules. Hence, quantum computers or the simpler quantum simulators can solve the problem more quickly and efficiently.
In natural photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to chemical energy through a cascaded, photoinduced charge transfer chain that consists of primary and secondary acceptor quinones (i.e., QA and QB), which leads to exceptionally high quantum yield near unity. Inspired by the unique multistep charge transfer architecture in nature, we have synthesized catecholamine-functionalized, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) film as a redox mediator that can mimic quinone acceptors in the photosystem II. We utilized polynorepinephrine (PNE) as a redox-shuttling chemical, as well as to coat graphene oxide (GO) and to reduce GO to RGO. The two-electrons-and-two-protons-involving charge transfer characteristic of quinone ligands in PNE acted as an electron acceptor that facilitated charge transfer in photocatalytic water oxidation. Furthermore, PNE-coated RGO film promoted fast charge separation in [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and over two-fold increased the activity of cobalt phosphate on photocatalytic water oxidation. The results suggest that our bio-inspired strategy for the construction of forward charge transfer pathway can provide more opportunities to realize efficient artificial photosynthesis.
the I-quantum photosynthesis reaction ..
"A quantum simulator is the preliminary stage of a quantum computer. Contrary to a quantum computer, however, it is not able to make any calculations, but designed for the solution of a certain problem", Jochen Braumüller of KIT's Physikalisches Institut stated. As the high efficiency of the process of mass and energy conversion of plants with the help of light cannot be understood completely with classical physical theories, researchers like Jochen Braumüller use a quantum model. Together with scientists of the Institut für Theoretische Festkörperphysik (TFP, Institute for Theoretical Solid-State Physics), he demonstrated for the first time in an experiment that quantum simulations of the interaction between light and matter - as a basis of photosynthesis and, hence, our life - work in principle.
The majority of light-gathering macromolecules are composed of chromophores (responsible for the colour of molecules) attached to proteins, which carry out the first step of photosynthesis, capturing sunlight and transferring the associated energy highly efficiently. Previous experiments suggest that energy is transferred in a wave-like manner, exploiting quantum phenomena, but crucially, a non-classical explanation could not be conclusively proved as the phenomena identified could equally be described using classical physics.
17/11/2015 · Quantum Genetics Information ..
We introduce shell cross-linked nanocapsules as an efficient tumor-targeted systemic delivery nanocarrier for highly luminescent, heavy-metal-free Cu0.3InS2/ZnS (CIS/ZnS) core-shell quantum dots (QDs). The CIS/ZnS QDs are synthesized by using a hot injection method with copper iodide, indium acetate, zinc stearate, and dodecanethiol. A mixture of the prepared QDs and amine-reactive six-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in dichloromethane was emulsified into an aqueous solution containing human serum albumin (HSA). The resulting shell cross-linked nanocapsules show excellent dispersion stability in a serum-containing medium and high luminescence comparable to QDs in a non-polar organic solvent. Folic acid is introduced as a tumor-targeting ligand. In vivo tumor targeted delivery is demonstrated by measuring the fluorescence intensity of several major organs and tumor tissue after an intravenous tail vein injection of the nanocapsules into nude mice. The cytotoxicity of the QD-loaded HSA-PEG nanocapsules is also examined in several 32 types of cells. Our results show that the cellular uptake of the QDs is critical for cytotoxicity. Moreover, a significantly lower level of cell death is observed in the CIS/ZnS QDs compared to nanocapsules loaded with cadmium-based QDs. This study suggests that the systemic tumor targeting of heavy metal-free QDs using shell cross-linked HSA-PEG hybrid nanocapsules is a promising route for in vivo tumor diagnosis with reduced non-specific toxicity
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