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Where does protein synthesis occur in animal cells?

All steps of protein synthesis easily explained, ..

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How do eukaryotic cells secrete proteins? - Quora

The best known and studied bacterial toxin is the diphtheria toxin,produced by . Diphtheria toxin is abacterialexotoxin of the A/B prototype. It is produced as single polypeptidechainwith a molecular weight of 60,000 daltons. The function of the proteinis distinguishable into two parts: subunit A, with a m.w. of 21,000daltons,contains the enzymatic activity for inhibition of elongation factor-2involvedin host protein synthesis; subunit B, with a m.w. of 39,000 daltons, isresponsible for binding to the membrane of a susceptible host cell. TheB subunit possesses a region T (translocation) domain which insertsinto the endosome membrane thus securing the release of the enzymaticcomponent into the cytoplasm.

growth, steroidogenesis, and(or) protein synthesis of bovine granulosa cells

After translation, the protein passes into the channels of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for transportation. The protein is then passed from the rough ER to the Golgi apparatus inside tiny fluid-filled sacs, called vesicles. The Golgi apparatus is a system of , which are responsible for the modification, processing, and packaging of the proteins. The protein may have a carbohydrate added, to form a glycoprotein. The Golgi apparatus packages the protein in a secretory vesicle, which fuses with the cell membrane and releases the protein from the cell.

It helps in protein synthesis in the cell

Akt on serotonin secretion and synthesis, parental BON cells were cultured ..

Exotoxinsare usually secreted by bacteria and act at a site removed frombacterial growth. However, in some cases, exotoxins are only releasedbylysis of the bacterial cell. Exotoxins are usually proteins, minimallypolypeptides, that act enzymatically or through direct action with hostcells and stimulate a variety of host responses. Most exotoxins act attissue sites remote from the original point of bacterial invasionor growth. However, some bacterial exotoxins act at the site ofpathogen colonizationand may play a role in invasion.

Effects of a natural extract of hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX plus niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract on weight loss.
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2004; Preuss HG, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Satyanarayana S. Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Georgetown, Washington, DC, USA.
The efficacy of optimal doses of highly bioavailable hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) alone and in combination with niacin-bound chromium (NBC) and a standardized Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) on weight loss in moderately obese subjects was evaluated by monitoring changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), appetite, lipid profiles, serum leptin and excretion of urinary fat metabolites. HCA-SX has been shown to reduce appetite, inhibit fat synthesis and decrease body weight without stimulating the central nervous system. NBC has demonstrated its ability to maintain healthy insulin levels, while GSE has been shown to regulate weight loss and blood sugar levels. A human study was conducted in Elluru, India for 8 weeks in 60 moderately obese subjects. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Group A was administered HCA-SX 4667 mg, group B was administered a combination of HCA-SX 4667 mg, NBC 4 mg and GSE 400 mg, while group C was given placebo daily in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before meals. All subjects received a 2000 kcal diet/day and participated in supervised walking. At the end of 8 weeks, body weight and BMI decreased by 5-6% in both groups A and B. Food intake, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides and serum leptin levels were significantly reduced in both groups, while high-density lipoprotein levels and excretion of urinary fat metabolites increased in both groups. A marginal or non-significant effect was observed in all parameters in group C. The present study shows that optimal doses of HCA-SX and, to a greater degree, the combination of HCA-SX, NBC and Gymnema sylvestre extract can serve as an effective and safe weight-loss formula that can facilitate a reduction in excess body weight and BMI, while promoting healthy blood lipid levels.

Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

2 Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis in a cell 3 They are the ..

Earlier we observed a competition between a selected SS and the 3'UTR in mediating mRNA targeting to distinct classes of polysomes []. We therefore investigated the effect of different SPs derived from mammalian secretory proteins on the synthesis/secretion of Gaussia princeps (a marine copepod) luciferase (Gluc) used as a reporter protein []. The results showed that the choice of SP had a major impact on synthesis/secretion of Gluc in CHO cells. Contrary to what was expected the SP of albumin was extremely inefficient (

To achieve this, two main strategies have been used: (1) optimising the components of the vector containing the gene of interest, and (2) optimising cell growth and selection. Optimisation of the vector by genetic engineering has mainly focused on increasing the efficiency by which the gene is transcribed. The concept being that a high level of transcription would ultimately lead to a higher protein yield due to increased availability of mRNA for translation. Vector design, the chromosomal environment of the plasmid integrated in the host genome and plasmid copy number, are among the parameters that can contribute to transcription efficiency. An increased level of mRNA coding for any secreted protein of interest, however, will only be beneficial if the transcript is correctly transported to the endoplasmic reticulum and then effectively translated. This area has hitherto been largely neglected.

GH) on growth, steroidogenesis, and(or) protein synthesis of bovine granulosa cells
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The Parietal Cell: Mechanism of Acid Secretion

Three human yolk sac carcinoma cell lines were characterized for the expression of several markers. Each of the cell lines expressed alpha-fetoprotein, without detectable levels of chorionic gonadotropin, and the level of alpha-fetoprotein expression increased dramatically when the cultures were held without passage for extended periods. The secretion of a number of plasma proteins was documented by metabolic labeling, immunoprecipitation, and gel analysis. The major plasma proteins detected were alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-fetoprotein, transthyretin, β-2 microglobulin, and plasminogen, with lower levels of transferrin and complement C4 released. Apolipoproteins B, E, and A1 were secreted in high levels as well and were found in the form of lipoprotein particles. Time course experiments on the synthesis of apolipoproteins E and A1 indicated that, as with alpha-fetoprotein, the level of synthesis increased substantially when the cultures were held without passage. The results indicate that these yolk sac carcinoma cells display a protein expression profile similar to that observed for the human yolk sac, and the possibility that the cells may have the potential to differentiate is discussed.

Protein synthesis, folding, modification, and secretion …


J Ethnopharmacol 1990.
The effectiveness of GS4, an extract from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, incontrolling hyperglycaemia was investigated in 22 Type 2 diabetic patients on conventionaloral anti-hyperglycaemic agents. Gymnema (400 mg/day) was administered for 18-20 months as asupplement to the conventional oral drugs. During supplementation, the patients showeda significant reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and glycosylated plasmaproteins, and conventional drug dosage could be decreased. Five of the 22 diabeticpatients were able to discontinue their conventional drug and maintain their blood glucosehomeostasis with Gymnema alone. These data suggest that the beta cells may be regenerated/repaired in Type 2 diabetic patients with supplementation. This is supportedby the appearance of raised insulin levels in the serum of patients after supplementation.

animalsciences | Synthesis and Secretion

N2 - Three human yolk sac carcinoma cell lines were characterized for the expression of several markers. Each of the cell lines expressed alpha-fetoprotein, without detectable levels of chorionic gonadotropin, and the level of alpha-fetoprotein expression increased dramatically when the cultures were held without passage for extended periods. The secretion of a number of plasma proteins was documented by metabolic labeling, immunoprecipitation, and gel analysis. The major plasma proteins detected were alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-fetoprotein, transthyretin, β-2 microglobulin, and plasminogen, with lower levels of transferrin and complement C4 released. Apolipoproteins B, E, and A1 were secreted in high levels as well and were found in the form of lipoprotein particles. Time course experiments on the synthesis of apolipoproteins E and A1 indicated that, as with alpha-fetoprotein, the level of synthesis increased substantially when the cultures were held without passage. The results indicate that these yolk sac carcinoma cells display a protein expression profile similar to that observed for the human yolk sac, and the possibility that the cells may have the potential to differentiate is discussed.

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