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Most stomata in xerophytes also only open at night.

Well, the process of producing food with the help of light energy remains the same for both aquatic and land plants.

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and CAM photosynthesis, indicating that plant cuticle can be ..

To reduce loss the leaf is coated in a wax cuticle to stop the water vapour escaping through the epidermis. Leaves usually have fewer stomata on their top surface to reduce this water loss.

When leaves are rolled, the stomata are on the inside of the leaf, and are also amongst leaf hairs.

The leaf hairs help create a microclimate, preventing transpiration through the stomata as the concentration gradient has been reduced, making it harder for water evaporation out of the stomata.

Photosynthesis is a biochemical process in which plants, ..

Plants growing in drier conditions tend to have small numbers of tiny stomata and only on their lower leaf surface, to save water loss. Most plants regulate the size of stomata with guard cells. Each stoma is surrounded by a pair of sausage-shaped guard cells. In low light the guard cells lose water and become flaccid, causing the stomata to close. They would normally only close in the dark when no carbon dioxide is needed for photosynthesis.

The plant meristem is a type of tissue found at several locations on plants. This tissue is composed of cells which are totipotent. This means that these cells are able to divide and make all the types of cells of that particular plant at any given time. Meristem tissue allows continuous growth and the formation of new organs. Apical meristems are found at the tips of roots and shoots. The apical meristem is responsible for the elongation of roots and stems. It allows the stem to grow taller and the roots to increase in length. Also, the shoot apical meristem allows the formation of new leaves and flowers. The growth in height of the stem is important for photosynthesis while the lengthening of the roots is important for the plant to anchor deep into the soil and it is also vital for the uptake of water and nutrients found in deeper soil layers. The growth taking place at apical meristems is called primary growth. In addition, plants also grow by increasing the diameter of their stems and roots. This is called secondary growth and is a result of cell devision in the lateral meristems. It allows extra xylem and phloem tissue production and it also provides stability for the plant to grow taller.

Leaves and Leaf Anatomy - Photosynthesis WebQuest

Vascular tissue - Consists of xylem and phloem which are found in the veins of the leaf. The veins in the leaf are positioned in the middle so that all the cells are in close contact with the vascular tissue. The xylem consists of xylem vessels (dead structure) which are long and tubular and transports water into the leaf to replace the water that has been lost through transpiration. The phloem is made up of living cells with pores in between them. It transports the products of photosynthesis out of the leaf.

The other image below the golden barrel is of Ammophila or Marram grass, which has had its leaves rolled and would have the stomata on the inside, shielding the stomata from the wind and heat.



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  • Photosynthesis - perfect chemistry in Nature

    If xerophytes have leaves reduced to spines, there are no stomata present on them.

  • Plants are living organisms, they need food in order to keep living

    Stomata on xerophytes are in sunken pits, which reduces the rate of evaporation.

  • Glossary of Biological Terms ← BACK

    The xylem tissues assist in transpiration, as the woody pipelines pull the water up to the stomata.

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IB Biology Notes - 9.1 Plant structure and growth

They absorb carbon dioxide from atmospheric air through their stomatal openings (present in upper and lower side of leaves), water from the soil through their root system, and last but not the least, radiant energy from sunlight.

plant structure bi - Biology Junction

Spongy mesophyll - Made up of loosely packed cells. This tissue is found in the lower half of the leaf (lower surface) and has few chloroplasts. It provides gas exchange (CO2 uptake and O2release) and therefore needs to be close to the stomata found in the lower epidermis.

Chemistry for Biologists: Photosynthesis

Tropisms are directional movement responses which occur due to external environmental stimuli. The direction of the stimulus affects the direction of movement. Tropisms can either be negative or positive. Positive tropisms are the directional movement towards the stimulus while negative tropisms are the directional movement away from the stimulus. Examples of stimuli causing tropisms in plants are gravity and light. Roots will grow towards gravity while the plant shoot will grow upwards in the opposite direction. The directional movement of plants in response to light is called phototropism. As seen with gravity, the plant's roots will grow away from the light, into the soil (negative phototropism) while the plant shoot will grow towards the light (positive phototropism). Positive phototropism seen at the tips of plant shoots is made possible due to plant hormones called auxins. Auxins are produced at the tips of plant shoots and then translocate to the darker side of the shoot tip and stem which is receiving less light. This translocation is made possible via auxin efflux carriers which are unevenly distributed in the plant tissue. Once auxins reach the shaded side of the plant, they cause the elongation of cells so that the shaded side grows faster than the brighter side, thereby promoting the bending of the plant shoot towards the light. Auxins do so by binding to auxin receptors on cells. The binding of auxin causes the transcription of certain genes within those cells and therefore the production of specific proteins which affect growth. Auxins allow the expelling of protons (hydrogen ions) into the cell walls of the cells on the shaded side, decreasing the pH inside the cells and in doing so activate specific enzymes which break down cellulose microfibrils within the cell wall. This loosens the cell wall and allows cell elongation. So to conclude, auxins are very important in the control of plant growth towards the light and thereby allow the plant to increase its rate of photosynthesis.

BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Root hair cells and osmosis

Leaves are adapted for photosynthesis by having a large surface area, and contain openings, called stomata to allow carbon dioxide into the leaf. Although these design features are good for photosynthesis, they can result in the leaf losing a lot of water. The cells inside the leaf have water on their surface. Some of this water evaporates, and the water vapour can then escape from inside the leaf by diffusion.

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