Appalachian plant being tested for assisted migration , 26 July 2010.
Initially this envelope is inhydrostatic equilibrium, with most of the luminosity provided by the accreting planetesimals.
Protoplanetary disk - Wikipedia
For the first concept presented above, for conventional renewable energy sources, they are replenished by sunlight or radiation from Earth’s interior; one is fusion, and the other is fission. For so-called non-renewable energy sources, such as hydrocarbons and fissile materials, they are either renewed on timescales so vast that they are effectively non-renewable for humans (such as ), or are “renewed” by the (fissile materials), so could only be renewed with new planetary formation. In mainstream thought, the currently non-renewable energy resources are primarily hydrocarbons (petroleum, coal, and natural gas) and uranium. Much of the debate centers around the definition of oil. What has been called oil for the past 150 years is today called . It is the oil formed by the , and can be mined by drilling wells and extracting it with the conventional methods that have been used since the beginning, and new techniques are periodically invented to increase the rate and total extraction. For conventional oil, humanity has unearthed about 1.1 trillion barrels since 1859, and about as of 2014. Production of conventional oil peaked in 2006 at 25 billion barrels per year and has declined since then. At current production rates, conventional oil will be completely depleted in less than 50 years. About another five billion barrels per year are called unconventional oil, which is called heavy oil, extra heavy oil, and oil sands. Those unconventional oils comprise trillions more barrels, and total and arguably more. For fissile materials, primarily uranium, the peak may have already been reached by 2014, or it . For , in that the peak may have already been reached, or it is only a few decades into the future at most. For coal, may also be only a few decades into the future. Peak extraction usually occurs when about half of the recoverable energy resource has been mined. In summary, the energy resources that have powered the Industrial Revolution are all on their way to largely vanishing in this century. The only resources with seeming viability past this century are coal and unconventional oil, which brings us to the second concept: .
However, the apparent prevalence of population adaptation to cold temperatures should serve as a note of caution for assisted migration prescriptions that may move planting stock northward too fast or too far in case climate change does not materialize as rapidly as predicted.
in the surrounding disk can cause planetary migration
With migration rates of ~ 0.1 - 5 km per year required for geographic ranges to track climate change over the next century, we expect nurseries and gardens to provide a substantial head start on such migration for many native plants.
Incorporating the newly emerging science of restoration genetics, and the lessons learned from both rare plant translocation experiments and the practice of restoration ecology will provide a road map for how to design assisted migration events.
Planetary migration - FARGO3D - YouTube
Some nonliterate societies do not engage in warfare. They are a vanishingly small proportion of the world’s native societies, but almost without exception, they are not warlike because they are geographically isolated. The most important variable in predicting a society’s level of internal and external violence is male dominance. Monkeys are (matrilineal), and males leave their society of birth to mate, gorillas and chimps are (patrilineal), where females leave their natal society to mate, and humans have both kinds of pre-state societies, along with some . Patrilocal societies are run by gangs of related men, are by far the most violent, engage in the most warfare, and women are subjected to the most violence. Patrilocal societies can also have harems or many “wives” for the alpha males. Patrilocal societies make up nearly 70% of the world’s native cultures that have been documented. Neanderthals and australopiths . The primary determinant of patrilocal or matrilocal residence in humans is the economic contribution of women. In general, where gathering and horticulture brought in more calories than hunting, women had more influence and the society tended to become matrilocal. Those relationships only hold for societies that are not economically centralized. When surplus redistribution appeared, men began to dominate, and the chiefdom was the first step toward state formation. Organized violence only began increasing as states began to form.
Studies of warfare have shown that absolute population density has little influence on how warlike societies are. However, the proper way to analyze population density and conflict is probably not in absolute terms, but relative terms. Hunter-gatherer bands slaughtered each other over access to resources such as waterholes, stone quarries, and salt deposits. Ancient states of the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean fought over access to forests, arable lands, and low-energy transportation lanes (usually waterways), and no informed observer thinks that the , after and helping to bankrupt its own economy by hosting a huge military presence in that region, if the USA was sitting atop enough high- oil to power its economy for centuries. It is the abundance of resources that supports a people’s means of production that largely determines how warlike they are going to be. Scarcity leads to violence, whether it is a or history’s richest and most powerful nation invading peoples half a planet away to steal their energy resources.
Planetary migration; References
Planetary migration | Wiki | Everipedia
Each panel represents the state of the planetary system at a different time, starting at t=100 million years.
The effects of a magnetic field on planetary migration …
The effect of varying the position of the inner edge of the planetesimal disk is shown in the diagram below.
26/11/2017 · Planetary migration in evolving ..
For example, assume that we immediately discover evidence of life on a planet 100 light years distant.
Planetary Migration and a Smaller Mars - Centauri …
It is yet to be seen if official plans will include a more thorough assess- ment of the ecological impacts of assisted migration, or more extensive monitoring programs.
formation of planetary systems - David Darling
EXCERPT: "This example [Torreya Guardians] of assisted migration has raised the issue of authorization and oversight as the official federal recovery plan does not identify assisted migration as a conservation strategy for Florida Torreya.
14/01/2008 · Planetary Migration and ..
The author, park planner Kevan Williams, weaves the science and policy viewpoints into three sequential narratives:
(1) a futile recent Nature Conservancy project of attempting to "rewild" a native camellia, , southward to its "native" (actually, peak-glacial) habitat in southern Georgia from its cultivated (rescue) domain near Philadelphia.
(2) the ongoing (and thus far successful) attempt by citizen naturalists to work around the Endangered Species Act and thus on their own initiative move a critically endangered Florida conifer, (photo left), from its peak glacial refuge in northern Florida into the southern Appalachians and points farther north.
(3) the disaster looming large for even common forest trees, as climate shifts rapidly, along with the role that massive projects of assisted migration, on the one hand, and urban forest landscaping, on the other, could play in helping species move north.
Planet formation via core accretion - Faculty Support Site
In the 1990s, I found the dating issue enthralling and saw it assailed by fringe theorists and by . A couple of decades later, I reached the understanding that, like all sciences, dating has its limitations and the enthusiasm for a new technique can become a little too exuberant, but dating techniques and technologies have greatly improved in my lifetime. Dating the , and using 100,000-year increments to place the dates, may seem a conceit, thinking that scientists can place that event with that precision, but over the years my doubts have diminished. When and can be tested, and the findings support not only Earth’s age previously determined by myriad methods, but also support the prevailing theories for the solar system’s and Moon’s formation, call me impressed. Controversies will persist over various finds and methods used, and scientific fraud certainly occurs, but taken as a whole, those converging lines of independently tested evidence make it increasingly unlikely that the entire enterprise is a mass farce, delusion, or even a conspiracy, as many from the fringes continue to argue. There is still a , and it is not a parody. I have looked into fringe claims for many years and few of them have proven valid; even if many were, their potential importance to the human journey was often minor to trifling. As the story that this essay tells comes closer to today’s humanity, orthodox controversies become more heated and fringe claims proliferate.
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