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Stephen Krashen and the Input Hypothesis

Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill.

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"A natural approach to the acquisition and learningof a language".

Cummins (2001) is the researcher most closely associated with the theory that use of the mother tongue can support second language acquisition and the learning of subject content. Cummins postulates the existence of a common underlying proficiency (CUP), so that knowledge, understanding and skills acquired in language 1 are available for use in language 2. As Cummins states: "Conceptual knowledge developed in one language helps to make input in the other language comprehensible." For example, if a child learns the concepts of "justice" or "honesty" in her own language, all she has to do is acquire the label for these terms in English. She has a far more difficult task, however, if she has to acquire both the label and the concept in her second language.

... 'comprehensible input' is the crucial and necessary ingredient for the acquisition of language.

Krashen (2003) claims that cognitive development, including the acquisition of concepts and facts, is more likely to occur through problem-solving than through deliberate study. It is a confusion of cause and effect to teach facts and thinking skills in order that students may then solve real problems. Instead, it is the case, Krashen says, that learning is the of working on real problems.

Krashen's Hypotheses - University of Alberta

Krashen's theory of second language acquisition consists of five main hypotheses:

Anecdotal confirmation of the hypothesis that we get smart by solving problems is provided by the webpage author's son. In the course of playing Pokemon games by himself and with his friends he built up an enormous amount of knowledge about the hundreds of Pokemon characters, their interrelationships, weapons, strength and weaknesses, and so on. Of course, a game is not a problem in the common sense of the word, but it falls within the scope of what Krashen means by problem-solving.

The concept of cognitive development ("becoming smarter") resulting from problem-solving is exemplified in the Whole Language approach to reading. Our knowledge of phonics, spelling, sentence structure and good writing style is gained through reading and writing; it is not the cause of reading and writing ability. Krashen (2001) develops this argument in a paper criticising the trend to more testing in schools.

Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition

Comprehension and the acquisition of grammatical knowledgein a second language.

Teachers, of course, are concerned with the practical worth of a particular theory and are generally oblivious or impervious to such ivory-tower discussions. Whether or not Krashen's theories of language acquisition meet certain scientific criteria, it is indisputable that they have been widely and successfully applied in the classroom.

According to Krashen, the study of the structure of the language canhave general educational advantages and values that high schools and collegesmay want to include in their language programs. It should be clear, however,that examining irregularity, formulating rules and teaching complex factsabout the target language is not language teaching, but rather is "languageappreciation" or linguistics.

The Input Hypothesis For second language acquisition the biggest hindrance to a learner is a high-anxiety environment.
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  • Krashen's Five Main Hypotheses - SlideShare

    Short description of Krashen's 5 main hypotheses on second language acquisition with comments in Portuguese.

  • Krashen's Five Main Hypotheses 1

    Krashen Hypothesis | Second Language | Second …

  • What is the monitor in Krashen's Monitor Hypothesis? …

    Krashen Hypothesis - Download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online.

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Stephen Krashen's Second Language Acquisition - Prezi

The important insight from Krashen's work is that neither competence nor performance is alone sufficient in the production of a good piece of writing. Extensive reading, regular writing practice and the acquisition of writing skills and strategies are all necessary to ensure a strong end product.

Krashen's 5 Hypotheses by Lisa Merlo Flores on Prezi

Krashen's (1984) early work in this field draws the distinction between writing competence and writing performance. Competence is the largely sub-conscious, abstract knowledge of what constitutes good prose. Competence is acquired for the most part through reading. Performance, on the other hand, refers to the conscious application of strategies or rules that have been learned and practised. The distinction between competence and performance in writing parallels that between acquisition and learning in second language development.

Language Learning and Teaching: Krashen's Input Hypothesis

Krashen's (2003) hypothesis that we develop new cognitive structures and long-term memory by problem-solving is influenced the work of Wallas (1926) and Smith (1985). According to Wallas problem-solving (or creativity) involves 4 stages: preparation, incubation, illumination and verification.

The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis: Definition and …

Krashen is a strong advocate of the whole language approach to the teaching of reading, and has written many articles in support of it. In essence, whole language proponents claim that children learn to read most enjoyably and efficiently by exposure to interesting stories that are made comprehensible to them through pictures and discussions. This is in contrast to structured decoding programmes (usually designated ) in which children learn to read by sounding out the various parts of words.

Krashen’s Input Hypothesis and Comprehensible Input: [i …

Krashen (1984) applies his theory of the affective filter to the acquisition of writing competence. Learners who are anxious or have low expectations of success are less likely to become proficient writers, regardless of the amount and quality of the reading they do.

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