Misconception 1 "Evolution is 'just a theory'".
Misconception 2 "Theories become facts when they are well supported and/or proven."
It is of great interest to find the zeroes of this function.
are shaped like an hourglass - starting from general questions, narrowing down to focus on one , and where we can and analyze this aspect. At last, we and to the real world.
There are three important misconceptions propagated in the above statements. The first statement implies that a theory should be interpreted as just a guess or a hunch, whereas in science, the term theory is used very differently. The second statement implies that theories become facts, in some sort of linear progression. In science, theories never become facts. Rather, theories explain facts. The third misconception is that scientific research provides proof in the sense of attaining the absolute truth. Scientific knowledge is always tentative and subject to revision should new evidence come to light.
Cantor conjectured that the answer is no.
CORRECTION: This is far from true. A 2005 survey of scientists at top research universities found that more than 48% had a religious affiliation and that more than 75% believed that religions convey important truths.1 Some scientists are not religious, but many others subscribe to a specific faith and/or believe in higher powers. Science itself is a secular pursuit, but welcomes participants from all religious faiths. To learn more, visit our side trip .
Validity refers to what degree the research reflects the given research problem, while Reliability refers to how consistent a set of measurements are.
“Fact-Hypothesis-Theory Word Jumble”
The Natural Order hypothesis is based on research findings (Dulay & Burt, 1974; Fathman, 1975; Makino, 1980 cited in Krashen, 1987) which suggested that the acquisition of grammatical structures follows a 'natural order' which is predictable. For a given language, some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. This order seemed to be independent of the learners' age, L1 background, conditions of exposure, and although the agreement between individual acquirers was not always 100% in the studies, there were statistically significant similarities that reinforced the existence of a Natural Order of language acquisition. Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies. In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition.
For example, a particular hypothesis about meteorological interactions or nuclear reactions might be so complex that it is best described in the form of a computer program or a long mathematical equation.
The "size" of a set is called its .
In fact, theories often integrate and generalize many hypotheses.
It is not hard to show that the set of all subsets (called the ) of the rationals has the same "size" as the reals.
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This came to be known as the .
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It is possible to prove that adding the Continuum Hypothesis or its negation would not cause a contradiction.
In research, a hypothesis is a suggested explanation of a phenomenon.
CORRECTION: While it is true that Western science used to be the domain of white males, this is no longer the case. The diversity of the scientific community is expanding rapidly. Science is open to anyone who is curious about the natural world and who wants to take a scientific approach to his or her investigations. To see how science benefits from a diverse community, visit .
In such cases, the hypothesis or theory may be called a .
CORRECTION: When scientists are portrayed in movies and television shows, they are often ensconced in silent laboratories, alone with their bubbling test-tubes. This can make science seem isolating. In fact, many scientists work in busy labs or field stations, surrounded by other scientists and students. Scientists often collaborate on studies with one another, mentor less experienced scientists, and just chat about their work over coffee. Even the rare scientist who works entirely alone depends on interactions with the rest of the scientific community to scrutinize his or her work and get ideas for new studies. Science is a social endeavor. To learn more, visit our section on the .
If evidence supports a hypothesis, it is upgraded to a theory.
is to which extent the research and the of the research apply to the real world. It is not always so that good research will reflect the real world, since we can only a small portion of the at a time.
Hypotheses cannot become theories and theories cannot become laws.
is based on several factors of the research process, not just because the researcher got the expected result. It has to be based on the of the measurement, how good the measurement was to reflect the real world and what more could have affected the results.
is when we accept the when the null hypothesis is in fact correct.
CORRECTION: The feats accomplished through the application of scientific knowledge are truly astounding. Science has helped us eradicate deadly diseases, communicate with people all over the world, and build that make our lives easier everyday. But for all scientific innovations, the costs must be carefully weighed against the benefits. And, of course, there's no guarantee that solutions for some problems (e.g., finding an HIV vaccine) exist though science is likely to help us discover them if they do exist. Furthermore, some important human concerns (e.g. some spiritual and aesthetic questions) cannot be addressed by science at all. Science is a marvelous tool for helping us understand the natural world, but it is not a cure-all for whatever problems we encounter.
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