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23/04/2016 · Dysbiotic drift: mental health, ..

Downward drift hypothesis Persons with severe mental disorders move to from MPH 604 at Benedictine IL

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The schizophrenias plague about one percent of the world’s population. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, more than two million Americans are affected by some form of schizophrenia. This array of illnesses can severely impair a person's ability to manage emotions, interact with others, and think clearly. Symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, disordered thinking, and social withdrawal.

Dysbiotic drift: mental health, environmental grey space, and microbiota

Ornithischians started slowly and began to become common in the late Jurassic, just when the greatest biological innovation in the past 300 million years began: the appearance of , which first bloomed about 160 mya. Until that time, plant survival strategies included how to avoid being eaten by animals, whether it was bark, height, poisonous foliage, etc. Flowering plants adopted a different strategy by laying out a banquet for animals. The primary benefit for plants was , as well as attracting animals that did not seek to eat the plants and even ended up protecting them. The advantage for animals was an easily acquired and tasty meal. It was the greatest direct symbiosis between plants and animals ever, other than plants providing the oxygen that animals breathe, which is inadvertent. The two primary aspirations that seed plants achieve for successful reproduction are becoming fertilized via pollination and placing seeds where they can become viable offspring (and feces fertilizer could only help). Flowering plants, also called angiosperms, did not invent animal assistance from whole cloth. Some Jurassic insects have been found in association with (conifer) cones, and were probably doing the work that the wind previously performed. Like the , attracting animals to plants, to eat the pollen and nectar, was like a reproductive enzyme: animals carried the key to the lock to initiate reproduction. Other animals ate the fruit and thereby spread the seeds. That relationship did not become significant until the mid-Cretaceous. Angiosperms mature faster and produce more seeds than gymnosperms do. By the Cretaceous’s end, angiosperms dominated tropical biomes where ferns and cycads used to thrive, and they pushed conifers to the high latitudes, just as they have today. That tropical dominance is probably related to the insect population, which prefers warm climates. Angiosperms became Earth’s dominant plants after the and comprise more than 90% of plant species today.

Social Causation Thesis Schizophrenia – 706298 – …

This social drift engenders a population who are ..

The issue of avian and dinosaurian air sacs and when they evolved has been the focus of a rancorous dispute that was only recently resolved and hinged on the hollow parts of bones, which is a phenomenon called . The controversy involved dinosaur bone pneumaticity and how it may have been related to birds. In a , it was shown that birds have their most important air sacs where nobody thought they were, near a bird’s tail, not its head. Not only that, pneumatic bones are all related to the air sac system, and birds have the same pneumatic bones as saurischian dinosaurs did. The obvious implication is that the air sac system evolved in theropods and sauropods, when dinosaurs first appeared. If the air sac system appeared with the first dinosaurs, it is one more big reason why dinosaurs prevailed over the less respiratorily gifted therapsids. Such a highly effective respiration system evolving in a low-oxygen environment is a tantalizing hypothesis.

In the 19th century, the Jurassic was called the Golden Age of Dinosaurs, but that moniker is arguably most applicable to the late Cretaceous, and it was a golden age clear up until a bolide impact brought it all to an end. One of the uglier disputes in paleontology’s history was a bent on outcompeting each other in finding and describing dinosaur fossils. However, the dinosaur extinction is probably the largest and most contentious controversy in the history of paleontology. Again, the , due to Lyell’s and Darwin’s prevailing uniformitarianism, until my lifetime. The hypothesized bolide event, , was a kind of a bolide event inflicted on paleontology. Acrimonious disputes ignited that still burn, but it made studying mass extinctions respectable. Initially attacked and dismissed, the bolide impact hypothesis is by far today’s leading hypothesis for explaining the . However, at the same time, India was speeding toward its Asian destiny, and its movement is associated with . Also, , so the bolide event has some theoretical competition as a causative agent.

To test the social drift hypothesis, ..

which might support a sensitization hypothesis, the improvement in mental health ..

The relationship between the British and their North American colonies has greatly influenced global civilization for the past few centuries. Whether the balance tipped to the side of good or evil depends on who is asked. Many extinct peoples of North America cannot answer, but we can reasonably infer their reply. The would probably vote in the negative, as would the peoples of India, as would most surviving remnants of Native American societies, as would many other colonized peoples, both during the ascent and dominance of the British Empire and the American Empire. The preferred fiction is that the USA is not an empire, even though it has several hundred military bases scattered across the world, even though it has killed far more people internationally than the , and the tally does not include the millions, even billions, immiserated by the USA’s neocolonial policies. Below is a map of the British Empire's territorial control. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Later, palaces appeared, and Sumerian palaces and their related elites are seen today as more of an intrusive dynamic from rural societies, as a kind of invasion and conquest rather than a natural outcome of Sumerian urban life. The elite arguably performed some kind of exchange function, but a common idea among anthropologists is that elites became elites , not because they performed a necessary societal function. In early cities, elites usually arose from new professional classes that created and controlled markets. In early Mesopotamian states, palace activities were largely centered around elite lifestyles, not administering state functions. Sumer was the first pristine state, and when , something like happened. They all had similar features, which included: male domination, divinely sanctioned heads of state with harems and other extravagances in their capital cities, including elite-aggrandizing monumental architecture, forced servitude, human sacrifice and/or public executions to terrorize the populace into submission, conscripted “cannon fodder” infantry led by elite officers, fortified cities, taxation, and so on. All pristine states passed through similar developmental stages, and some features appeared earlier or later than others, with minor variation among their attributes, but they all had remarkable resemblances, which probably reflected human “nature,” in which everywhere reacted to analogous economic conditions in comparable fashion.

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It is emphasized here in the introduction that there is much more to mental health than the absence of checklist criteria as found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). The World Health Organization describes mental health not by the absence of a mental health disorder - rather it is ultimately defined as the ability of an individual to reach their potential in the context of physical and social well-being []. The ‘No Health without Mental Health’ mantra is therefore not a clever marketing slogan; it should resonate through all aspects of health promotion.

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Advances in research concerning the mental health implications of dietary patterns and select nutrients have been remarkable. At the same time, there have been rapid increases in the understanding of the ways in which non-pathogenic microbes can potentially influence many aspects of human health, including those in the mental realm. Discussions of nutrition and microbiota are often overlapping. A separate, yet equally connected, avenue of research is that related to natural (for example, green space) and built environments, and in particular, how they are connected to human cognition and behaviors. It is argued here that in Western industrial nations a ‘disparity of microbiota’ might be expected among the socioeconomically disadvantaged, those whom face more profound environmental forces. Many of the environmental forces pushing against the vulnerable are at the neighborhood level. Matching the developing microbiome research with existing environmental justice research suggests that grey space may promote dysbiosis by default. In addition, the influence of Westernized lifestyle patterns, and the marketing forces that drive unhealthy behaviors in deprived communities, might allow dysbiosis to be the norm rather than the exception in those already at high risk of depression, subthreshold (subsyndromal) conditions, and subpar mental health. If microbiota are indeed at the intersection of nutrition, environmental health, and lifestyle medicine (as these avenues pertain to mental health), then perhaps the rapidly evolving gut-brain-microbiota conversation needs to operate through a wider lens. In contrast to the more narrowly defined psychobiotic, the term eco-psychotropic is introduced.

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The focus throughout the current discussion will be depressive symptoms and psychological distress. In order to highlight how a ‘disparity of microbiota’ might unfold, a process referred to later as dysbiotic drift, more detailed discussions of the pathophysiology of depression, the quality of the residential environment (particularly the urban built environment), dietary patterns, and other socioeconomic determinants will be necessary. Central to the unfolding argument will be the emerging evidence suggesting the intestinal (and overall) microbiome - the microbial communities that occupy habitats on and within the body - can shape some degree of mood and behavior in rodents and humans.

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