Directional hypothesis states the nature of ..
Null and Directional Hypothesis - BrainMass
Alternative hypotheses can be nondirectional or directional.
This is known as a one-tailed hypothesis test because only scoresin one tail of the sampling distribution will lead the researcher to concludesupport for his/her directional prediction.
Fig. 11. A bird’s-eye view of the geomagnetic field as seen when looking in different directions. In this example, the
geomagnetic field (arrow) has an inclination of 68 degrees (From: Ritz et al. 2000).
Hypothesis - definition of hypothesis by The Free …
Figure 22. Examples of the orientation of flight trajectories of homing pigeons relative to isopleths of geomagnetic intensity.
Single-color lines and points indicate flight trajectories and position fixes of individual pigeons. Yellow circles show the location of
release sites, and yellow lines designate the straight-line direction to the home loft. Thin green lines are magnetic intensity isopleths
(10 nT intervals). Background color depicts relative elevation (low-elevation areas are blue and high-elevation areas are green). Red
scale bars are 500 m. Arrows indicate locations of alignment of individual birds: ( a) Long-distance alignment along lines of similar magnetic
intensity; ( b, c) Parallel and/or perpendicular alignments at two other release sites; ( d– f). Detailed views of examples of parallel and
perpendicular alignments (From: Dennis et al. 2007).
The availability of different compass mechanisms changes with time of day (e.g., sun and star compasses) and weather conditions. When multiple cues are potentially available, birds may preferentially use one compass or may integrate the information from, for example, the inclination compass and the celestial compass. Birds may also use one compass cue to calibrate another cue. Such calibration may be critical for maintaining an accurate heading because cue availability changes with weather conditions, season, time of day, and latitude, and directional information between different compass systems sometimes diverge (e.g., because magnetic declination, the difference between magnetic and geographic north, varies with location). As a result, birds must calibrate the different compasses with respect to a common reference both before and during migration to avoid navigational errors.
Null and Alternative Hypothesis | Real Statistics Using …
Fig. 19. Isolines of magnetic intensity (solid thin lines) and inclination (dashed lines) relative to capture (Rybachy, Kaliningrad region)
and displacement (Zvenigorod, Moscow region) sites and the breeding range of Eurasian Reed Warblers in the region (shaded light gray).
Solid arrow shows the displacement direction. The broken arrow at the capture site shows the mean migratory direction, and the broken
arrows at the displacement sites show the authors' working hypotheses: (1) no compensation, (2) compensation toward the breeding destinations,
and (3) compensation toward the capture site (From: Chernetsov et al. 2008).
Birds could also potentially navigate using a process called path integration (sometimes referred to as dead reckoning). Path integration is a navigational, or homing, strategy used by many animals, ranging from arthropods to mammals. Using path integration, an animal is able to return to a specific location after travelling to any point some distance from it, even if the path taken is circuitous, by using information collected during the journey to determine a direct (straight-line) route back. Using path integration, an animal determines its position and the positions of other objects in the environment by integrating the distance and directions travelled during a journey. Distance and direction information can potentially be obtained from a number of sources, including proprioceptive cues, vestibular or somatosensory cues, and solar and magnetic cues. Among birds, Wiltschko and Wiltschko (1998) suggested that young pigeons use path integration (or, using their terminology, route reversal) when initially learning about their environment (until they are about three months old). However, Wallraff (2000: F34) concluded that the hypothesis that “pigeons develop a very sophisticated path integration mechanism for use within only a few weeks after which they forget it lacks both plausibility and experimental support.” Beyond homing pigeons, little is known about the use of path integration by birds. However, because the likelihood of errors increases with increasing distance (Able 2000), path integration, if used by birds, is likely of greater importance for short-distance navigation.
Statistical hypothesis testing - Wikipedia
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics - B W Griffin
An introductory statistics text for the social sciences ..
hypothesis synonyms, hypothesis pronunciation, hypothesis translation, English dictionary definition of hypothesis
INTRODUCTORY STATISTICS: CONCEPTS, MODELS, AND APPLICATIONS
Intelligent races who are not EARTH HUMANS
Figure 2. Example of the difference between true navigation and vector navigation by a hypothetical songbird migrant in Europe
with a fall migration route from Norway to Spain (thin solid arrow). In this hypothetical experiment, migrants en route are captured
and displaced (dashed arrow) from their traditional migratory path to a distant, unfamiliar site in eastern Europe and then released.
True navigation (the thick solid arrow to Spain) would require the ability to determine the ‘new’ location and adjust the migratory
route to compensate for the displacement and still end up at the over-wintering site in Spain. Because vector navigation (the thick solid
arrow to Italy) is only the ability to continue moving in a particularly direction for a certain distance or time, there would be no
compensating to take into account the ‘new’ location. So, migration would continue along the some orientation and for the same distance,
but the hypothetical migrant would end up in Italy rather than Spain (From: Bingman and Cheng 2005).
Evolutionary Theory | Leigh Van Valen
Fig. 4. With a bi-coordinate gradient map, birds learn the navigational cues that vary in strength in their territory or home range.
Birds then assume by extrapolation that these cues continue to vary in this way elsewhere. For long-distance migrants, these cues
would need to vary consistently on a continental or global scale. As an example of how this mechanism works, if a bird is located
outside of its range at point X (A5, B5), then detected cues are greater or stronger than encountered previously (because cues
are increasing in strength as indicated by the direction of arrows A and B). A bird then knows it is north and west of its home range
and must fly southeast to return (From: Thorup and Holland 2009).
Probability - definition of probability by The Free …
Gas and water molecules in the atmosphere scatter light from the sun in all directions, an effect that is responsible for blue skies and a phenomenon called atmospheric polarization. When a photon from the sun strikes a gas molecule, the electric field from the photon induces a vibration and subsequent re-radiation of polarized light from the molecule (Figure 7). Light scattering off atoms and molecules in the atmosphere is unpolarized if the light keeps traveling in the same direction and is linearly polarized if at scatters in a direction perpendicular (either vertically or horizontally) to the way it was traveling. So sunlight coming directly toward you is unpolarized. Light is more polarized in directions perpendicular to the sun's rays so, at noon, polarization would be most apparent along the horizon. However, at sunset, polarized light forms an image like a large bow-tie -- located overhead at sunset -- pointing north and south. Importantly, polarization patterns are apparent even when skies are cloudy (Figure 8).
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