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may influence lactose digestion in a ..

Most human infants produce ample quantities of lactase for milk digestion

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Lipid digestion: steps, enzymes and products - Tuscany …

Structural differences between the glycosidic linkages in starch and cellulose affect animals’ ability to digest plant foods. Enzymes such as amylase cannot break down cellulose polymers. Some animals, including cows and termites, digest cellulose by hosting special microorganisms in their digestive tracts that produce cellulose-degrading enzymes. However, humans and most animals do not make an enzyme capable of degrading cellulose, leaving cellulose fibers undigested as they pass through the body. Humans do exploit plant cellulose in non-dietary ways by processing trees, cotton, and other plants to make paper, clothing, and many other common materials. Humans also harvest large trees to build structures with the cellulose-rich lumber.

Protein digestion in the stomach and small intestine

Cellulose is the fiber in the diet, but no human cell is known to produce a cellulase, an enzyme that breaks down fiber for digestion. Several species of bacteria in the large intestine produce cellulases and digest celluose. Importantly the major end products of microbial digestion of cellulose and other carbohydrates are volatile fatty acids, lactic acid, methane, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Fermentation is the major source of intestinal gas.

The duodenum and protein digestion

Mutation and Natural Selection: The Case of Lactase Persistence. Lactase is the enzyme responsible for the digestion of the milk sugar called lactose.

Cells build carbohydrate polymers by using energy to form , the bonds between monosaccharides. A dehydration synthesis reaction forms a bond between carbon atoms in two monosaccharides, sandwiching an oxygen atom between them and releasing a water molecule. A disaccharide forms when two monomers are joined. Sucrose (table sugar) is made by joining two specific monomers, glucose and fructose. Different monosaccharide pairs produce many of the common disaccharide sugars we associate with food, including sucrose, maltose (malt sugar, two glucose monomers) and lactose (milk sugar, glucose and galactose monomers).

In addition to providing energy for the plants that synthesize them, starches serve as the main food source for many animals. Humans and other animals produce enzymes that degrade starch molecules into small fragments during digestion. In humans, this digestion begins in the mouth by an enzyme called amylase, which degrades starch polymers into disaccharides (maltose). To experience starch digestion yourself, try chewing an unsalted cracker for a long time. After a while, did the cracker begin to taste sweet? This is the formation of maltose disaccharides in your mouth as the starch is digested. Salt may disguise many other tastes, so this mini-experiment works best with unsalted crackers.

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Liver enzymes help speed up chemical reactions in the liver.

Disorders of the digestive system range from common digestive diseases to inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, ulcers or even cancers of the stomach, colon and/or rectum.

The liver is the body’s chemical-processing center. It is the largest organ of the human body and is below the diaphragm in the of the abdomen. It has many functions including production of chemicals necessary for digestion, synthesis of protein and detoxification. The major function of the liver is to produce bile (yellowish-green fluid) which aids in the digestion and absorption of fats. It also stores glucose, iron and vitamins A, B12, D etc. The liver also sends out the nutrients and substances digested from the food to the cells of the body.

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  • Condensation and Hydrolysis - BioTopics

    Fructose - Wikipedia

  • Background information about Condensation and Hydrolysis reactions ..

    Liver Enzymes - Enzyme Facts

  • It is the basis for the synthesis of all the important ..

    Metabolism - Wikipedia

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A Description of Lactose and Lactase Reaction

Lactase is an enzyme produced in the small intestine which help breakdown lactose (found in milk products) into a form that can be easily absorbed by the blood. When there is lack of lactase, the body can’t digest lactose—called lactose intolerance. This is generally caused from injuries to the small intestine. There is no treatment to improve the body’s ability to produce lactase but doctors may suggest more lactase enzymes. Lactose intolerance is controlled with changes in diet.

Biochemistry/Carbohydrates/Proteins Flashcards | Quizlet

What your bowel movement will tell you about your health. The human gut is almost unique amongst mammals – the upper gut is a near sterile, digesting carnivorous gut (like a dog’s or cat’s) to deal with meat and fat, while the lower gut (large intestine) is full of bacteria and is a fermenting vegetarian gut (like a horse ‘s) to digest vegetables and fiber.

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Certain foods are easily fermented by bacteria and can cause gas in your stools. Foods that ferment and the resulting gas include those that contain large amounts of sugars, lactose, starch, or fiber, such as beans, milk, cabbage, apples, soft drinks, and sugar-free candies. This can indicate a microbial overgrowth.

digestive tract during digestion.

Polysaccharides: are the most abundant organic compounds in the biosphere..">
Monomer Polymer Dimer Dehydration Synthesis: Process in which cells link monomers together to form polymers- Results in loss of water H OH H H H2OH2OH2OH2O
Hydrolysis: Digestion of macromolecules through the addition of water H2OH2OH2OH2O H OH Check Point: 1.

Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules | Boundless …

I have had always disagree that in the esophagus doesn’t take place digestion, to my beliefs the simple issue of wrap-up the processed food with mucosa before entering the stomach’s mouth, I think is part of digestion.
May be the mucosa will mix inside the stomach with the other saliva and fastened the process of digestion, because if the esophagus wouldn’t wrap-up the bolus it probably will destroy the stomach walls, some foods are hard to be dissolved instantly, some of us humans in some occasions we eat like monsters.

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