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Cross-Stressor Adaptation Hypothesis

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Cross stress adaptation: Phenomenon of interactions between ..

, , and (2010)'Cross-adaptation': habituation to short repeated cold-water immersions affects the response to acute hypoxia in humans. The Journal of Physiology, 588 (18). pp. 3605-3613. ISSN 0022-3751

Cross stress adaptation: Phenomenon of interactions between homotypic and heterotypic stressors

A theoretical model of predictors of refugee economic adaptation was tested using data from a telephone survey of a random sample of Hmong, Somali, and Russian refugees resettled in Minneapolis-St. Paul. The study examined the relative influence of demographic characteristics, flight-related characteristics, host-related characteristics. residency characteristics, acculturation characteristics, and adaptation stresses upon refugees’ employment status and estimated earnings. Although previous studies have extensively examined demographic and residency characteristics, the relative influence of the other factors has not been comprehensively investigated. Multivariate analyses indicated that across the different refugee groups, the model explained 34-44% of the variance in employment status and 12-26% of the variance in estimated earnings. Consistent with previous findings, demographic characteristics, in particular, education, gender, and household composition, had the largest effects on the indicators of economic adaptation. The remaining factors had relatively small effects. The implications for refugee resettlement theory, policy, practice, and future research are discussed in light of these and previous findings.

exposure of a novel stressor in cross adaptation ..

Why is it logical that exercise develops habituation in the cross stressor adaptation hypothesis.

For example, water exports and Delta Cross Channel operations are stressors that affected the driver of entrainment, and introduction of the overbite clam is a stressor related to changes in the driver of food base. The POD management team hypothesized that habitat degradation was the fundamental cause of the smelt decline through its effects on growth and reproduction (see Baxter et al.

This exploratory study describes a nonrandom, purposive sample of refugee Mutual Assistance Associations (MAAs) in the San Francisco Bay area and identifies the variables associated with their funding resource patterns. The study is based on record reviews, written surveys, and personal interviews; longitudinal, comparing 1986 and 1990 organizational status; and also cross-sectional. Two major goals and resource outcomes are associated with certain organizational and cultural contingencies. One type of refugee MAA is a mutual aid/self-help organization that survives on minimal revenue totally from the community it serves. The organization pursues segregative goals for the preservation of its native culture, and its informal structure is modeled after traditional, native organizations and cultural practices. The second type of refugee MAA is a government funded, hybrid human service/mutual aid organization. This middle class, bicultural leadership organization pursues integrative goals. Due to government funding, it is more complex organizationally.

Evolution of the Cross-Stressor Adaptation Hypothesis;

One theory about how this works is the “cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis.”

Exposing mice to a prolonged restraint stressor during oral challenge with a colonic pathogen (namely Citrobacter rodentium) significantly increases colonic pathogen levels and resultant colonic pathology. Stressor exposure also increases the deterioration of the colonic barrier. In our study, C. rodentium, which does not possess virulence mechanisms to invade across the epithelial barrier, could be cultured from systemic organs, such as the spleen, suggesting the pathogen was able to cross a deteriorated intestinal barrier in stressor-exposed mice. This systemic pathogen translocation was associated with increases in circulating cytokines, such as IL-6, and an increase in anxiety-like behavior. Interestingly, feeding the mice L. reuteri enhanced intestinal barrier function. Pathogen translocation to the spleen, as well as circulating IL-6 levels, was significantly reduced in stressor-exposed mice fed the L. reuteri. In addition, the L. reuteri prevented the development of anxiety-like behavior in the mice exposed to the prolonged restraint stressor during oral challenge with C. rodentium.

To address this question, we determined whether social defeat during a single 2 hours exposure to a stressor paradigm called social disruption was sufficient to impact the composition of the colonic tissue-associated microbiota. During this stressor, mice have ad libitum access to food and water. However, the use of next generation, high throughput 454 FLX-Titanium pyrosequencing demonstrated that as little as 2 hours of social defeat was sufficient to significantly change the composition of the intestinal microbiota (Galley et al., ref. ). This was evident in significant changes to the β, but not α, diversity of microbial communities associated with the colonic tissue, and demonstrates that stressor exposure can change the microbiota independent of differences in diet. Of importance, reductions in the relative and absolute abundance of bacteria within the genus Lactobacillus were observed, which is in agreement with observations of stressor-induced reductions in lactobacilli shed from laboratory rodents, nonhuman primates, as well as humans assessed using culture-based methods. Thus, although there is tremendous individual variability in the composition of the intestinal microbiota, and many different bacterial types can be affected by stressor exposure, alterations in commensal lactobacilli have consistently been identified in different individuals, across different stressor paradigms, and in different host species.

25/06/2013 · The present study tested the hypothesis that cross-adaptation ..
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  • January 1996 - Volume 24 - Issue 1

    Answer Selected Answer Allostatic load hypothesis Correct Answer Cross stress from KHS 5523 at Wayne State University

  • Chapter 10 Flashcards | Quizlet

    The present study tested the hypothesis that cross-adaptation is also possible with humans.

  • Exercise training is thought to develop cross-stressor tolerance:

    Start studying Chapter 10

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27/05/2009 · Language Editing Services ..

This book contains theoretical analysis of human cardiovascular function in real conditions of Earth gravitational field leading to the scientifically sound hypothesis of essential hypertension as advanced stage of natural adaptation of the human cardiovascular system to abnormally increased gravitational stress associated with modern «sitting» lifestyle.

no support was demonstrated for the …

Exercise-induced improvements in reactivity to and recovery from psychological and orthostatic challenge would be consistent with this evidence. Moreover, such a finding is consistent with the cross-stressor adaptation theory () that holds that adaptations to exercise stress lead to adaptations of the responses to other challenges.

University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Adaptation to an environmental stressor is usually studied in isolation, yet these stressors are often encountered in combination in the field, an example being cold and hypoxia at altitude. There has been a paucity of research in this area, although work with rodents indicates that habituation to repeated short cold exposures has a cross-adaptive effect during hypoxia. The present study tested the hypothesis that cross-adaptation is also possible with humans. Thirty-two male volunteers were exposed to 10 min bouts of normoxic and hypoxic ( 0.12) rest and exercise (100 W on a recumbent cycle ergometer). These were repeated after a 96 h interval, during which participants completed six, 5 min immersions in either cold (12°C, CW) or thermoneutral water (35°C, TW). Venous blood samples were taken immediately after each bout, for determination of catecholamine concentrations. A three-lead ECG was recorded throughout and the final 5 min of each bout was analysed for heart rate variability using fast fourier transformations (and displayed as log transformed data (ln)). In comparison with the first hypoxic exercise exposure, the second exposure of the CW group resulted in an increased ln high frequency (ln HF) power (P

Chapter 9 Stress part B Flashcards | Quizlet

An early meta-analysis of 34 studies of fitness and reactivity to psychological challenge found evidence for attenuated psychophysiological responses to stress in fitter individuals (). A more recent meta-analysis also concluded that fitness was associated with improved reactivity and recovery () but another found no support for this hypothesis (). Most studies addressing this matter are either cross-sectional or naturalistic follow-up studies rather than randomized controlled trials.

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