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T1 - Improving carbon fixation pathways

The photosynthesis equation is actually split into 2 stages: photolysis and carbon fixation.

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Carbon Fixation Activity Sheet | Photosynthesis | …

If the light intensity is not a limiting factor, there will usually be a shortage of NADP+ as NADPH accumulates within the stroma (see light independent reaction). NADP+ is needed for the normal flow of electrons in the thylakoid membranes as it is the final electron acceptor. If NADP+ is not available then the normal flow of electrons is inhibited. However, there is an alternative pathway for ATP production in this case and it is called cyclic photophosphorylation. It begins with Photosystem I absorbing light and becoming photoactivated. The excited electrons from Photosystem I are then passed on to a chain of electron carriers between Photosystem I and II. These electrons travel along the chain of carriers back to Photosystem I and as they do so they cause the pumping of protons across the thylakoid membrane and therefore create a proton gradient. As explained previously, the protons move back across the thylakoid membrane through ATP synthase and as they do so, ATP is produced. Therefore, ATP can be produced even when there is a shortage of NADP+.

27/12/2013 · Photosynthesis - Carbon Fixation Rxns - Duration: 14:49

In the photosynthesis takes place in a chloroplast of a thin-walled mesophyll cell and a 4-carbon acid is handed off to a thick-walled bundle sheath cell where the Calvin cycle occurs in a chloroplast of that second cell. This protects the Calvin cycle from the effects of .

Environmental Sciences: Carbon Fixation in Elodea Analysis

How long can this process of , carbon particle settling, and carbon particle recycling continue in our experiment?

C4 cycle
(see diagram on board)
C4 Cycle:
a carbon fixation method before the Calvin Cycle that isolates CO2 and reduce photorespiration


C4 Plants
Plants in hot and dry climates have
in its internal leaf structure and mode of carbon fixation that
minimizes photorespiration.

09/09/2011 · Carbon Fixation in Elodea Analysis The ..

Others are �re-mineralized,� that is, they decay by the action of , releasing carbon dioxide to the water in the process.

The pyruvate accumulates during the day but is converted back to malate during the night
As with usual C4 plants, this step requires an expenditure of ATP

CAM Cycle
(see Diagram on board)
COMparing CAM, c4, and c3 plants
CAM PLants
c4 PLants
c3 PLants
Rubisco enzyme present
Require CO2 for Calvin Cycle
Stomata are usually open during the day

Uses more ATP to reduce photorespiration
Stomata closed during the day and open at night
Initial fixation of CO2 is by phosphoenolpyruvate which has a stronger attraction to CO2 than Rubisco
Usually live in environments that are hot during day and cool at night
Live in environments that are hot and dry all the time
Carbon is directly fixed into G3P

Very inefficient Calvin Cycle, plants are extremely inefficient in hot, dry conditions and thus normally are not found in dry locations.

This CO2 is then used to combine with rubisco in the Calvin Cycle

CAM Plants
C4 plants run their cycle at the same times as the Calvin Cycle but in different locations (mesophyll and bundle sheath
Preventing Water Loss In Plants
Chapter 5.4: Alternative methods of Carbon fixation
Lesson taught and created by Rina Patel, Anna Larsson, and Allison Cole and Rosie the pug
-water makes up the cytosol, and so when photosynthesis occurs, it is readily available
-plants have adaptations that prevent water loss from the leaf

-Waxy layer on the plant leaf which is waterproof and prevents water from escaping.
-Stomata: pores on the cuticle that regulate the movement of gases in and out of the plant leaf

The Cuticle
During the day, the stoma opens and CO2 enters for photosynthesis.

carbon fixation Study Sets and Flashcards | Quizlet
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  • Search › In photosynthesis, carbon fixation occurs: | …

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  • Carbon fixation - Photosynthesis in a marine diatom

    dependent on the energy generated during photosynthesis, and also that without carbon fixation the …

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photosynthesis carbon fixation ..

The light-independant reactions of photosynthesis occur in the stroma of the chloroplast and involve the conversion of carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. The light-independent reactions can be split into three stages, these are carbon fixation, the reduction reactions and finally the regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate. Collectively these stages are known as the Calvin Cycle.

and the overall process is called carbon fixation.

Photophosphorylation is the production of ATP using the energy of sunlight. Photophosphorylation is made possible as a result of chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their concentration gradient. During photosynthesis, light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules. Electrons within these molecules are then raised to a higher energy state. These electrons then travel through Photosystem II, a chain of electron carriers and Photosystem I. As the electrons travel through the chain of electron carriers, they release energy. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoid. A concentration gradient of hydrogen ions forms within this space. These then move back across the thylakoid membrane, down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase. ATP synthase uses the energy released from the movement of hydrogen ions down their concentration gradient to synthesise ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Alternative methods of Carbon fixation by allie cole on …

During carbon fixation, carbon dioxide in the stroma (which enters the chloroplast by diffusion) reacts with a five-carbon sugar called ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) to form a six-carbon compound. This reaction is catalysed by an enzyme called ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (large amounts present within the stroma), otherwise known as rubisco. As soon as the six-carbon compound is formed, it splits to form two molecules of glycerate 3-phosphate. Glycerate 3-phosphate is then used in the reduction reactions.

Improving Carbon Fixation Pathways - ResearchGate

AB - A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that novel pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials.

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