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242 Carbohydrate Biosynthesis in Plants and Bacteria Ans 25 Photosynthetic from ENGLISH 101 at WPI

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Carbohydrate Biosynthesis in Plants * FIGURE 20-33 ..

Gluconeogenesis
Gluconeogenesis is a process of biosynthesis of glucose from simpler non carbohydrate precursors such as oxaloacetate or pyruvate. It is a universal pathway in animals, plants, microbes and fungi. It converts pyruvate to glucose (reverse of glycolysis). The irreversible steps of glycolysis are circumvented by four key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. They are pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenol pyruvate carboxy kinase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase.

Carbohydrates are stored as starch in higher plants and as glycogen in animals, bacteria, ..

Sources of Drugs: Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs;
Classification of Drugs: Morphological, taxonomical, chemical and pharmacological classification of drugs; Study of medicinally important plants belonging to the families with special reference to: Apocynacae, Solanaceae, Rutacease, Umbelliferae, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Liliaceae, Graminae, Labiatae, Cruciferae, Papaveraceae; Cultivation, Collection, Processing and Storage of Crude Drugs: Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants, Types of soils and fertilizers of common use. Pest management and natural pest control agents, Plant hormones and their applications, Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. Quality Control of Crude Drugs: Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and properties. Introduction to Active Constituents of Drugs: Their isolation, classification and properties.
Systematic pharmacognostic study of the followings:
CARBOHYDRATES and derived products: agar, guar gum acacia, Honey, Isabagol, pectin, Starch, sterculia and Tragacanth; Lipids: Bees wax, Castor oil, Cocoa butter, Codliver oil, Hydnocarpus oil, Kokum butter, Lard, Linseed oil, Rice, Bran oil, Shark liver oil and Wool fat; RESINS: Study of Drugs Containing Resins and Resin Combinations like Colophony, podophyllum, jalap, cannabis, capsicum, myrrh, asafoetida, balsam of Tolu, balsam of Peru, benzoin, turmeric, ginger;
TANNINS: Study of tannins and tannin containing drugs like Gambier, black catechu, gall and myrobalan;
VOLATILE OILS: General methods of obtaining volatile oils from plants, Study of volatile oils of Mentha, Coriander, Cinnamon, Cassia, Lemon peel, Orange peel, Lemon grass, Citronella, Caraway, Dill, Spearmint, Clove, Fennel, Nutmeg, Eucalyptus, Chenopodium, Cardamom, Valerian, Musk, Palmarosa, Gaultheria, Sandal wood; Phytochemical Screening: Preparation of extracts, Screening of alkaloids, saponins, cardenolides and bufadienolides, flavonoids and leucoanthocyanidins, tannins and polyphenols, anthraquinones, cynogenetic glycosides, amino acids in plant extracts; FIBERS: Study of fibers used in pharmacy such as cotton, silk, wool, nylon, glass-wool, polyester and asbestos.
Study of the biological sources, cultivation, collection, commercial varieties, chemical constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following groups of drugs:
GLYCOSIDE CONTAINING DRUGS: Saponins : Liquorice, ginseng, dioscorea, sarsaparilla, and senega. Cardioactive glycosides: Digitalis, squill, strophanthus and thevetia, Anthraquinone cathartics: Aloe, senna, rhubarb and cascara, Others: Psoralea, Ammi majus, Ammi visnaga, gentian, saffron, chirata, quassia.
ALKALOID CONTAINING DRUGS: Pyridine-piperidine: Tobacco, areca and lobelia. Tropane: Belladonna, hyoscyamus, datura, duboisia, coca and withania. Quinoline and Isoquinoline: Cinchona, ipecac, opium. Indole: Ergot, rauwolfia, catharanthus, nux-vomica and physostigma. Imidazole: Pilocarpus. Steroidal: Veratrum and kurchi. Alkaloidal Amine: Ephedra and colchicum. Glycoalkaloid: Solanum. Purines: Coffee, tea and cola. Biological sources, preparation, identification tests and uses of the following enzymes: Diastase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin. Studies of Traditional Drugs: Common vernacular names, botanical sources, morphology, chemical nature of chief constituents, pharmacology, categories and common uses and marketed formulations of following indigenous drugs: Amla, Kantkari, Satavari, Tylophora, Bhilawa, Kalijiri, Bach, Rasna, Punamava, Chitrack, Apamarg, Gokhru, Shankhapushpi, Brahmi, Adusa, Atjuna, Ashoka, Methi, Lahsun, Palash, Guggal, Gymnema, Shilajit, Nagarmotha and Neem. The holistic concept of drug administration in traditional systems of medicine. Introduction to ayurvedic preparations like Arishtas, Asvas, Gutikas, Tailas, Chumas, Lehyas and Bhasmas.
General Techniques of Biosynthetic Studies and Basic Metabolic Pathways/Biogenesis: Brief introduction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Terpenes: monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and triterpenoids. Carotenoids: a-carotenoids, ß-carotenes, vitamin A, Xanthophylls of medicinal importance. Glycosides: Digitoxin, digoxin, hecogenin, sennosides, diosgenin and sarasapogenin. Alkaloids: Atropine and related compounds, Quinine, Reserpine, Morphine, Papaverine, Ephedrine, Ergot and Vinca alkaloids. Lignans, quassanoids and flavonoids. Role of plant-based drugs on National economy: A brief account of plant based industries and institutions involved in work on medicinal and aromatic plants in India. Utilization and production of phyto-constituents such as quinine, calcium sennosides, podophyllotoxin, diosgenin, solasodine, and tropane alkaloids. Utilization of aromatic plants and derived products with special reference to sandalwood oil, mentha oil, lemon grass oil, vetiver oil, geranium oil and eucalyptus oil. World-wide trade in medicinal plants and derived products with special reference to diosgenin (disocorea), taxol (Taxus sps) digitalis, tropane alkaloid containing plants, Papain, cinchona, Ipecac, Liquorice, Ginseng, Aloe, Valerian, Rauwolfia and plants containing laxatives. Plant bitters and sweeteners. Plant Tissue Culture: Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance. Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy. Marine pharmacognosy: Novel medicinal agents from marine sources. Natural allergens and photosensitizing agents and fungal toxins. Herbs as health foods. Herbal cosmetics. Standardization and quality control of herbal drugs, WHO guidelines for the standardization of herbal drugs.

Chapter 19 : Carbohydrate Biosynthesis

20 Carbohydrate Biosynthesis in Plants and Bacteria 20.1 Photosynthetic Carbohydrate Synthesis

Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a secondary pathway of glucose metabolism, primary being glycolysis. Glucose enters PPP as glucose 6-phosphate. It occurs in the cytosol of tissues active in fatty acid biosynthesis. Those tissues are liver, mammary and adrenal glands and adipose tissue. There are two phases in the pathway: oxidative and non-oxidative. Glyoxylate cycle is a variant of TCA cycle and occurs in bacteria and plants. Gluconeogenesis is a process of biosynthesis of glucose from simpler non carbohydrate precursors such as oxaloacetate or pyruvate. Glucose is stored in the body in the form of glycogen. Glycogen synthesis takes place in the liver and muscle. Starch and sucrose are synthesized in plants. Lactose is synthesized in lactating mammary glands of animals.

Plants use glyoxylate cycle to ..

Read "Conservation of the 2-keto-3-deoxymanno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) biosynthesis pathway between plants and bacteria, Carbohydrate Research" on DeepDyve…

15.04.2001 · Carbohydrate Biosynthesis in Plants and Bacteria. 20.1. Photosynthetic Carbohydrate Synthesis. 20.2. Photorespiration and the C4 and CAM Pathways. 20.3.
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