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Translation / Protein Synthesis

What are the roles of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis

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What Is the Role of DNA in Protein Synthesis? (with …

Discuss basic ideas involved in the structure and replication of DNA, and the concepts of protein synthesis in enough detail to understand concepts such as the one gene one polypeptide hypothesis; gene expression; mutations; and genetic engineering.

There are many steps to the protein synthesis ..

Our synthesis began with the preparation of 6 (>99% ) from 5 in 5 steps in 21.8% overall yield, as reported previously (). The diastereoselective reduction of the ketone group in 6, followed by the chemoselective methylation of the resulting alcohol, afforded 8 in 75% yield (1.0 g scale). The structure of 8 was unambiguously confirmed using X-ray crystallography. After extensive experimentation, we found that the regioselective Wacker oxidation of the substituted olefin using air as a co-oxidant gave ketone 9 in good yield. We reasoned that the methoxy group at C10 in 8 was critical for this regioselective outcome. Finally, the double elimination of the oxa-bridge in 9 proceeded smoothly using a slightly modified version of Cha’s procedure in the presence of TMSOTf and Me2EtN in DCM to complete our total synthesis of (−)-1 in 81% yield in >99% . The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of synthetic 1, as well as its optical rotation, were identical to those of the natural product.

There are 3 steps to protein synthesis: 1.

A protein called helicase splits apart both polymers of DNA in protein synthesis.

Figure 4. The p38 MAPK pathway regulates the nuclear localization of in response to oxidative stress. Animals containing an integrated transgenic array of a ::GFP fusion reporter were exposed (+) or not exposed (-) to oxidative stress (5 mM arsenite for 1 hour). The nuclear relocation of the protein depends on the MAPK pathway, because it does not occur in mutants of the gene (encoding a MAPKinase Kinase). Reproduced from of with permission from CSHL Press.

We thus propose the simple model (see ) that, following endoderm specification, participates in all acts of transcription in the intestine. However, other transcription factors are clearly present in the intestine (see below) and are likely to modulate the action of in different developmental or environmental circumstances. Transcription of the vitellogenin genes in the hermaphrodite intestine provides a possible example how this could occur. The vitellogenin (yolk protein) genes are expressed in the adult hermaphrodite intestine but not in the male intestine (). It had been known for some time that the gene is involved in repressing male vitellogenin synthesis () and Yi and Zarkower have shown that this effect is direct (). The protein shows similarity to , which, among other things, is also responsible for sex-specific regulation of yolk protein synthesis in flies (). The preferred binding sequence was identified and related sequences were then identified in the promoters of the half-dozen vitellogenin genes (). binds directly to one such site in an abbreviated promoter-reporter construct from the gene and mutation of this site causes reporter gene derepression in male intestines. A critical GATA site (; ) lies immediately adjacent to this site, suggesting that could act in the male intestine by repressing the activity of . GATA-like sites also lie in the vicinity of sites found in other vitellogenin gene promoters (; ; ).

Briefly describe the steps of DNA Replication

Synthesis of proteins by an individual cell is called as protein synthesis

mutants were originally isolated on the basis of resistance to fluoride () but turned out to have a short defecation interval. is a degenerin/epithelial sodium channel type of protein, expressed only in the intestine and possibly concentrated at apical membranes (). The gene encodes an apparently membrane-associated kinase that is expressed in the intestine (+ pharynx and several neurons) beginning from the comma stage; only intestinal expression is necessary for mutant rescue. GFP translational fusions to appear localized to the enterocyte membranes, especially the lateral membranes (). Proteins binding to the protein in a yeast two-hybrid assay have also been identified in the intestine (and other tissues; ). All of the above genes are candidates for participating in signals that originate from the oscillating calcium levels in the posterior intestine and that result in contraction of the posterior body wall muscles (the pBoc phase of defecation). Cycle times are influenced by additional intestinally-expressed genes, for example, genes that influence fatty acid composition ().

Two of the four TRPM-family channels in , and , are expressed predominantly in the intestine; translational fusions with GFP show that the protein accumulates at the intestinal apical surface. Both and play major roles in Mg++ ion transport and homeostasis in the intestine ().

May 08, 2006 · Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation BIO101 - Bora ..
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    Describe protein synthesis ..

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Describe briefly how proteins are synthesized after m …

IV. Resources
A. Water Resources
1. Describe the hydrologic or water cycle.
2. Describe the local water cycle in Johnson County, Kansas.
3. Describe the general drinking water treatment process including coagulation and sedimentation, filtration and disinfection.
4. List 5-10 ways to personally use less water.
5. Describe concerns about the overuse of ground water and surface water.
B. Soil, Agriculture and Pesticides
1. Briefly trace the development of agriculture.
2. Compare and contrast agribusiness, subsistence farming and sustainable agriculture.
3. Describe the concerns of animal farming.
4. List methods to increase food production.
5. List and describe five physical characteristics of soil.
6. Describe methods of controlling soil erosion.
7. Describe federal policies aimed at managing United States agriculture.
C. Energy
1. Trace the history of energy use in the United States.
2. List five sources used in the United Stated and give the percent of the current energy.
3. Connect sources of energy in the United States to end uses.
4. List and describe possible energy futures for the United States including fossil fuels, conservation, nuclear and nonrenewables.
D. Biological Diversity
1. List the benefits of species diversity.
2. List factors causing species decline.
3. Describe methods to protect and conserve species.
E. Minerals
1. Describe the environmental impact of mining and processing minerals.
2. Draw a depletion curve for a non-renewable resource and describe how to extend the curve.
3. Describe the United States’ situation with respect to mineral supply.
4. List minerals found in Kansas.
F. Public Lands
1. State the amount and location of public lands in the United States.
2. Describe current management philosophies and practices with respect to public lands.
3. Describe ecosystems as natural resources and as natural capital.
4. Describe areas of concern in the national parks, wilderness areas, wildlife refuges, national forests and Bureau of Land Management areas.
5. Describe land use planning and relate it to local cities.
6. Describe the cycle of decay in a city.
7. List characteristics of a sustainable city.

Translation / Protein Synthesis 6.

The genome contains nine genes encoding sodium-hydrogen exchangers and three of the genes are expressed exclusively in the intestine (). Translational fusions with GFP show that is located on the apical membrane, NHX-7 is located in the basolateral membrane and appears to be a mixture, basolateral at the ends of the intestine and apical in the central. Perfusion experiments, combined with intestine-specific expression of pH-sensitive GFP variants, were used to investigate how controls the intracellular pH of the intestine and, more particularly, how the exchanger compensates for the acidification caused by uptake of food-derived peptides (). The /PEP-2 protein is the major dipeptide transporter and is also located on the lumenal surface of the intestine (; ).

DNA to the site of protein synthesis

The general steps by which the animal digests its bacterial food can be surmised and are fully supported by analysis of the most highly expressed, most intestine-restricted set of genes identified in our SAGE analysis (). Presumably, the first act of digestion is physical damage to the bacteria inflicted by the pharyngeal grinder (). A small number of lysozymes (; ) are highly expressed in the intestine, are probably secreted and are the likely perpetrators of the next step in digestion, degradation of the bacterial cell wall. Several saposins/amoebapores are also highly expressed in the intestine and some appear to be secreted; presumably these small pore-forming proteins are able to puncture the bacterial membranes to release contents that can now be degraded by lumenal hydrolases ().

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