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Definition of associative hypothesis ..

Tests of an associative deficit hypothesis

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Tests of an associative deficit hypothesis.

The integrative capacity of children is also limited because of a relative absence of experience-derived templates that are helpful as "attractors" (Siegel, 1999) to integrate new and/or emotionally charged experiences. Thus (young) children would seem to be dependent on their social environment for regulation of the commands of instinctual action systems, and prone to integrative failure. In support of this hypothesis, Ogawa et al. (1997) found that dissociation in early childhood was a normative response to disruption and stress, whereas persistent dissociation in adolescence and young adulthood was indicative of psychopathology.

Adult-age differences in memory performance: Further support for an associative deficit hypothesis

Mental illness is becoming an increasing problem for two reasons. First, increases in life expectancy have brought increased numbers of certain chronic mental illnesses. For example, because more people are living into old age, more people are suffering from dementia. Second, a number of studies provide evidence that rates of depression are rising throughout the world

the hypothesis that the associative deficit in ..

Twin deficit hypothesis - Revolvy

Previous studies have proposed an associative deficit hypothesis, which attributes part of older adults' deficient episodic memory performance to their difficulty in creating cohesive episodes. According to the ADH, older adults show disproportionate deficits in relational memory (RM) relative to item memory (IM). The disproportionate RM deficit in older adults has been demonstrated with a variety of memory tasks, such as word-word, word-font, and face-name pairs. Despite rich evidence of an age-related RM deficit, the source of this deficit remains unspecified. One of the most widely investigated factors is the reduction in attentional resources in older adults. To investigate the effect of reduced attentional resources on RM performance, previous researchers have imposed a secondary task load on young adults during encoding of memory lists to divide attentional resources into two different tasks. However, none of the existing studies have found a disproportionate RM impairment in young adults under divided attention conditions. The current project investigated whether a reduction in attentional resources for relational processing underlies the memory impairments observed in aging. Using behavioral and functional neuroimaging techniques, I conducted three studies aimed at determining: 1) whether imposing a secondary task load for relational processing makes young adults' memory performance mimic the age-related RM deficit, and 2) whether the effect of reduced attentional resources for relational processing on RM is similar to the effect of aging at the neural level, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results from the two behavioral studies indicate that a reduction in attentional resources for relational processing in young adults during encoding equates their performance in RM to that of older adults. Furthermore, the results from the fMRI study demonstrate that both aging and reductions in relational attention processing in young adults significantly reduced activity in the brain areas critical for RM formation, namely, the ventrolateral and dorsolateral PFC, superior and inferior parietal regions, and left hippocampus. This converging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies thus documents the first evidence that the reduction in attentional resources for relational processing is the critical factor for the age-related RM deficit.

A typical mistake would be to start from cramming the meaningless sequence of periods. For example, clozing the Paleozoic Era sequence: "Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian" could result in a question that is bound to cause problems: "Cambrian, Ordovician, , Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian". This cloze will trouble anyone who is not privy to the field. In other words, only those who come with the knowledge ready in their mind will be able to tackle this type of question at little cost! Conclusion: there is no point in learning lists the hard way unless you already know what you are trying to learn! Catch 22!

Exposure to methylphenidate during infancy and …

In scientific research, acquiring engineering knowledge, studying a narrow topic of interest, etc. we are constantly faced with a chaos of disparate and often contradictory statements. By introducing the chaos of new research into SuperMemo, you will gradually locate contradictions and strive at building better and more consistent models in your memory. Incremental reading pieces of information coming from various sources and uses the associative qualities of human memory to emphasize and then resolve contradiction. You will quickly lean towards theories that are better supported by research findings. Those supported poorly will be less firm and will often cause recall problems. Naturally, it may happen that you wish to learn contradictory statements too. For example, the opinions of dissenting scientists. In those cases, SuperMemo will help you emphasize the need of rich context. You will label individual statements with their proponent names or with the school of thought labels.

We have presented a body of empirical and experimental data that support, or that are at least consistent with, the proposed theory. At a minimum it can be said that the basic distinction between ANP and EP serves heuristic functions in the study of trauma-related mental disorders. For example, the theory predicts testable neuroendocrine differences between both psychobiological systems, such as more prominent norepinephrine levels in EPs (to the extent that they involve activation of the sympathetic nervous system) compared to ANPs upon exposure to (perceived) threat. Another example of the heuristic function of the theory relates to the differential responses of ANPs and EPs to trauma memories and masked angry facial expression, as well as their different cortisol levels. Findings suggest that the processing of (perceived) threat by these dissociative parts of the personality diverges from the very early stages of information processing onward; this hypothesis can be tested using functional MRI. In fact, we currently plan this study. If the hypothesis would be confirmed, the next major question to address is what process controls the rather fundamental reorganization of the brain and mind when the traumatized individual switches from one dissociative part of the personality to another, in particular with respect to alternations between ANP and EP.

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Memory Enhancement and Deep-Brain Stimulation of …

Our theory considers that ANPs can mentally avoid unconditioned and conditioned threat cues, and that EPs will selectively attend to these cues. It is well established that response to major threat cues is controlled by preconscious information processing (Ledoux, 1996). For example, responses to angry faces are essentially controlled by the right portion of the amygdala, thus involving reflexive emotional reactions (Morris, Ohman, & Dolan, 1998), and recent MRI-evidence has demonstrated exaggerated amygdala response to masked facial stimuli in PTSD (Rauch et al., 2000). We thus hypothesized that dissociative parts of the personality will display different reactivity to (un)conditioned threat, and that these differences will be evident following exposure to subliminally presented threat cues, i.e. cues that are presented very briefly to preclude consciously aware perception. In an original study, Van Honk et al. (1999) tested the effects of exposing the ANP and EP in DID patients to subliminally presented neutral, fearful, and angry facial expressions. They found that it tended to take ANPs less time to name the color of the mask that immediately followed the experimental stimuli when this stimulus involved angry facial expressions, compared to exposure to neutral facial expressions. However, EPs did not display this effect. Compared with real DID patients, DID-simulating controls had the reverse pattern: longer response latencies after exposure to angry faces when enacting ANPs, and a tendency toward shorter reaction times after exposure to angry faces as EPs: the interaction group (real DID/DID-simulators) x condition (angry/neutral faces) was statistically significant. These differences did not show up when using fearful faces compared to neutral faces. Thus, the effect seems to be specific for cues that signal an increased possibility of attack. The results are supportive of the hypothesis that ANPs preconsciously avoid subliminal threat cues, and that EPs are focused on threat cues.

Memory Enhancement and Deep-Brain Stimulation of the Entorhinal Area

In the first study of its kind, Nijenhuis, Quak et al. (1999) assessed several psychophysiological reactions of ANPs and EPs to audiotaped descriptions of traumatic memories in 11 women with DID that was assessed by the SCID-D (Steinberg, 1994). Descriptions of recalled responses to the stimuli that constituted the recalled event were not included in the audiotape, because such response descriptions may be suggestive, and therefore may yield experimental artifacts. The memories were autonoetic for the EP, and anoetic, or at most noetic, for the ANP. In support of the hypotheses, it was found that in response to the trauma memory scripts, EPs, but not ANPs, displayed decreases of heart rate variability, and increases of heart rate frequency, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. No habituation or sensitization effects were observed. Both dissociative parts of the personality did not have differential psychophysiological responses to neutral memories that were autonoetic to both ANP and EP. Whereas EPs experienced a wide range of affective and sensorimotor reactions to the trauma memory scripts, ANPs did not have these reactions, or only to a minor degree. Compared with the reactions of PTSD patients found in most studies, the EPs of DID patients had greater increases of heart rate and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure upon exposure to personified trauma-cues. Among PTSD patients more severe pathology was associated with a higher magnitude of psychophysiological reactions to these cues (Orr et al., 1998).

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