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Acoustic Theory and the Fundamentals of synthesis by …

Acoustic Theory and the Fundamentals of Synthesis ..

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Acoustic Theory and Synthesis Glossary | …

In the context of the play the chorus is a multi-voiced persona, a single organism and not simply an accumulation of individuals. All the members of the chorus have identical masks. We have to think what meaning can be derived from the presence on stage of fifteen bodies with the same mask, the same stage face. This is unique in world theatre. Only very recently, during the last century, has science (and specifically quantum physics, biology and genetics) introduced ideas about human beings that correspond to the presentation by the tragic chorus. In quantum physics, electrons and indeed all species of elementary particles exhibit no individuality. In biology, different individuals in a certain species differ slightly, though not so much as to pass certain bounds that define the species. In genetics, human beings are genetically very like each other and differ only in around 0.1% of our genetic code; each of us is genetically like the other 99.9%. The chorus presents the two unmistakable traits of the theory of fractals: self-similarity, where every part of the fractal resembles every other part, and scaling, where the fractal pattern is made up of smaller copies of the same pattern. In the complex interweaving of identity that joins us, each of us may be an aspect of the other. To exist is to participate and to be interdependent of each other. These ideas about the human being have never been better represented on stage than with the presence of the tragic chorus. The tragic chorus lacks individuality and the chorus mask/costume stresses this fact. It unites individuals but at the same time creates automatically variations of its form by the ways these unifying elements (mask/costume) meet the actual bodies of the chorus members. The mask always keeps alive the tension between the one and the other, the whole and the part. Paradoxically, it is easier to develop a rhythmic movement pattern together with other people when all are wearing masks, because the mask prevents them simply from imitating each other. The only alternative left to the performer is to listen to the voice and the breath of the others and in this way, little by little, develop a common rhythm, a common breath, usually based upon the breath of the text. Everybody then depends on each other and develops a greater sensitivity for each other. This is how a tragic chorus is born. Common breath and the creation of a common body are the basis of the chorus and the mask is the medium for the birth of it. While other kinds of theatre use the mask as a means to present character differentiation and human behaviour, the mask of the tragic chorus focuses not on the differences but on the unifying aspects of the human species.

Essay about Acoustic Theory and Synthesis - 1146 …

The growth of gold nanoparticles by reduction by citrate and ascorbic acid has been examined in detail to explore the parameter space of reaction conditions. It is found that gold particles can be produced in a wide range of sizes, from 9 to 120 nm, with defined size distribution, following the earlier work of Turkevich and Frens. The reaction is initiated thermally or in comparison by UV irradiation, which results in similar final products. The kinetics of the extinction spectra show the multiple steps of primary and secondary clustering leading to polycrystallites.

FREE Acoustic Theory and Fundamentals of Synthesis …

Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a spatial audio rendering technique, characterized by creation of virtual acoustic environments

Calculation of the PSD from attenuation spectra is a classical ill-defined problem. The likelihood of multiple solutions can be minimized by carefully using all a’priori and independent information. Such information can be more readily employed in helping to solve the inverse problem if the mechanisms concerning the sound attenuation can be linked to all available a’prior independent information. The unified or “black box” approach does not easily provide format for this purpose.

Generic Application Programming Interfaces (DirectX, VST2.0) so that software developers can talk to operating systems and applications to create sounds at a high level in generic terms rather than in a hardware specific way. For instance, if a developer wanted to write a chorus/flange effect. With DirectX function calls that chorus effect can be integrated into numerous different sequencers like Cubase and Cakewalk, sound editors like Sound Forge and Cool Edit and even virtual synthesisers like VAZ and Generator.

Sound synthesis tutorial | University of Salford

Acoustic theory is a scientific field that relates to the description of sound waves. It derives from fluid dynamics. See acoustics for the engineering approach.

If we follow the development of the theatre architecture from the 5th to the 4th century BC, it is obvious that there is a desire to develop a theatre space with better acoustics and better visibility. Theatres were usually built on the side of a hill, with a hollow recess that sloped down at an angle of approximately 45 degrees. They generally had quite good acoustics. The choice of place gave a shape to the auditorium that matches almost perfectly the directivity of the human voice, which presents an almost unvarying sound distribution within the angle of 180 degrees. The theatre of Dionysus in Athens seems not to have had such excellent acoustics but it underwent many changes during the centuries and is not well preserved. The dimensions of the theatre of Dionysus best resemble the dimensions of Epidaurus, which is very well preserved. The development towards better acoustics culminates with the theatre of Epidaurus, which is not representative of the 5th century BC theatre buildings. It contains in its architectural form the essence of the concept of theatre as conceived and developed by the ancient Greeks. It has remarkable acoustics for speech intelligibility, solo delivery or unison chanting, and for solo musical instruments. Rather than a single factor it is the cumulative effect of many refinements that contribute to its acoustical excellence. Both visual and acoustic criteria dominate the design of the theatre. Reflected sounds reach the listener within 50 milliseconds after the initial sound, and produce in the listeners' consciousness a single acoustical image of greater intensity and enhanced quality than does the direct sound alone. The interest the ancient Greeks developed in acoustics surpasses the plain level of simply hearing and understanding of the dramatic texts. It suggests not only a wish to achieve good acoustics but also to express a desire to create an architectural unit, a theatre building that can function as a huge musical instrument oscillating in harmony with the human voice. The mask is part of this: it is the first external resonance chamber, a link in a chain of sound that starts with the actor and ends with the theatron and its surrounding landscape.

Allegra, J.R. and Hawley, S.A. “Attenuation of Sound in Suspensions and Emulsions: Theory and Experiments”, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 51, 1545-1564 (1972)

In theory, any instrument sound ..
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  • Wave field synthesis - Wikipedia

    23/03/2015 · Sound is the oscillation of air that results from vibrations caused by a sound source

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    Acoustic theory - Wikipedia

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    Principles of Sound Synthesis

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Computer Music Magazine | MusicRadar

The “viscous” mechanism is hydrodynamic in nature. It is related to the shear waves generated by the particle oscillating in the acoustic pressure field. These shear waves appear because of the difference in the densities of the particles and the medium. The density contrast causes particle motion with respect to the medium. As a result, the liquid layers in the particle vicinity slide relative to each other. The non-stationary sliding motion of the liquid near the particle is referred to as the “shear wave”. This mechanism is important for acoustics. It causes losses of acoustic energy due to shear friction. Viscous dissipative losses are dominant for small rigid particles with sizes less than 3 microns, such as oxides, pigments, paints, ceramics, cement, and graphite. The viscous mechanism is closely related to the electrokinetic mechanism which is also associated with the shear waves.

Didaskalia - The Journal for Ancient Performance

Simply constructing or filtering a harmonic series will be insufficient to model these important cases. Analysis of a well-made bell will show that although some ‘overtones’ do not correspond to a harmonic series they may correspond to other consonant intervals such as thirds and minor thirds giving the sound a musically useful character.

Music Theory: 432 Hz - Separating Fact From Fiction : …

We can see extra overtones are added to more familiar harmonics f, 2f, 3f, 4f, etc. Having just one modulating oscillator does not give spectacular results. Usually an FM synth will have 4 to 6 oscillators (‘operators’) that can be routed in a variety of ways (‘algorithms’) the carrier always being the last in the modulation chain. The technique is notoriously hard to implement, most musicians opting for the subtle tweaking of presets rather than full on programming. Though the technique does well at impersonating, electric pianos, bells and xylophones; acoustic pianos and guitars don't sound so convincing.

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