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GENETICS OF ABSCISIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS IN PLANTS

13/10/2014 · Tomato ABSCISIC ACID RIPENING 1 (ASR1) was the first cloned plant ASR gene

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Biosynthesis and metabolism of abscisic acid in tomato …

Overexpression of genes that respond to drought stress is a seemingly attractive approach for improving drought resistance in crops. However, the consequences for both water-use efficiency and productivity must be considered if agronomic utility is sought. Here, we characterize two tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines (sp12 and sp5) that overexpress a gene encoding 9-cisepoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, the enzyme that catalyzes a key rate-limiting step in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. Both lines contained more ABA than the wild type, with sp5 accumulating more than sp12. Both had higher transpiration efficiency because of their lower stomatal conductance, as demonstrated by increases in delta C-13 and delta O-18, and also by gravimetric and gas-exchange methods. They also had greater root hydraulic conductivity. Under well-watered glasshouse conditions, mature sp5 plants were found to have a shoot biomass equal to the wild type despite their lower assimilation rate per unit leaf area. These plants also had longer petioles, larger leaf area, increased specific leaf area, and reduced leaf epinasty. When exposed to root-zone water deficits, line sp12 showed an increase in xylem ABA concentration and a reduction in stomatal conductance to the same final levels as the wild type, but from a different basal level. Indeed, the main difference between the high ABA plants and the wild type was their performance under well-watered conditions: the former conserved soil water by limiting maximum stomatal conductance per unit leaf area, but also, at least in the case of sp5, developed a canopy more suited to light interception, maximizing assimilation per plant, possibly due to improved turgor or suppression of epinasty.

Abscisic acid biosynthesis in tomato: ..

Studies have elucidated specific allelochemicals involved in weed suppression, including benzoxanoids in rye; diterpenoid momilactones in rice; tabanone in cogongrass; alkaloids and flavonoids in fescue; anthratectone and naphthotectone in teak (Tectona grandis); abscisic acid beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester in red pine; cyanamide in hairy vetch; and a cyclopropene fatty acid in hazel sterculia (Sterculia foetida).Incorporation of allelopathic traits from wild or cultivated plants into crop plants through traditional breeding or genetic engineering methods could also enhance the biosynthesis and release of allelochemicals.

Abscisic acid levels in tomato ovaries are regulated by LeNCED1 ..

Multifaceted defense mechanism in sitiens, an abscisic acid deficient tomato mutant, against the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea.

Overexpression of genes that respond to drought stress is a seemingly attractive approach for improving drought resistance in crops. However, the consequences for both water-use efficiency and productivity must be considered if agronomic utility is sought. Here, we characterize two tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines (sp12 and sp5) that overexpress a gene encoding 9-cisepoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, the enzyme that catalyzes a key rate-limiting step in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. Both lines contained more ABA than the wild type, with sp5 accumulating more than sp12. Both had higher transpiration efficiency because of their lower stomatal conductance, as demonstrated by increases in delta C-13 and delta O-18, and also by gravimetric and gas-exchange methods. They also had greater root hydraulic conductivity. Under well-watered glasshouse conditions, mature sp5 plants were found to have a shoot biomass equal to the wild type despite their lower assimilation rate per unit leaf area. These plants also had longer petioles, larger leaf area, increased specific leaf area, and reduced leaf epinasty. When exposed to root-zone water deficits, line sp12 showed an increase in xylem ABA concentration and a reduction in stomatal conductance to the same final levels as the wild type, but from a different basal level. Indeed, the main difference between the high ABA plants and the wild type was their performance under well-watered conditions: the former conserved soil water by limiting maximum stomatal conductance per unit leaf area, but also, at least in the case of sp5, developed a canopy more suited to light interception, maximizing assimilation per plant, possibly due to improved turgor or suppression of epinasty.


This chain type is frequently found in several lipid forms, either isolated or combinedwith other chemical structures. A series of long-chain methylated alkanes (more than 23carbon atoms), saturated or with one double bond, were identified in settlingparticles and surface sediments from Japanese lakes and were shown to beproduced by planktonic bacteria being thus useful molecular markers (). Laboratory experiments havedemonstrated that -alkanes up to C35 may be formed in the laboratoryunder hydrothermal conditions (Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions) from formic acidor oxalic acid ().These results support the theory of the origin of life in hydrothermal systems.
Methoxyalkanes have been identified on bodies or silk of spiders :1-methoxy-16,20,24,28-tetramethylhentriacontane and1-methyl-2,24-dimethyloctacosane ().
It must be noticed that highly branched and unsaturated (2-5 double bonds)isoprenoids are widespread components in marine sediments (review by). The identification of C25 and evenof C30 highly branched isoprenoid alkenes in diatoms () have clearly established that they are the source ofthese compounds found in sediments.
Among the saturated isoprenoids found in geological sediments and oils, the mostfrequent are pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) and phytane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylhexadecane). Both compounds can be generateddiagenetically from the phytol side chain of chlorophyll. Pristane may alsoderive from the side chain of tocopherols while phytane is also generated byArchaea.

Overproduction of Abscisic Acid in Tomato Increases ..

“Multifaceted Defense Mechanism in Sitiens, an Abscisic Acid Deficient Tomato Mutant, Against the Necrotrophic Fungus Botrytis Cinerea.” .

, , , , , , , , , and . (2007)Overproduction of abscisic acid in tomato increases transpiration efficiency and root hydraulic conductivity and influences leaf expansion. Plant Physiology, Vol.143 (No.4). pp. 1905-1917. ISSN 0032-0889

The production of H2O2 is critical for brassinosteroid (BR)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stress tolerance in plants. In this study, the relationship between BR and ABA in the induction of H2O2 production and their roles in response to heat and paraquat (PQ) oxidative stresses were studied in tomato. Both BR and ABA induced increases in RBOH1 gene expression, NADPH oxidase activity, apoplastic H2O2 accumulation, and heat and PQ stress tolerance in wild-type plants. BR could only induced transient increases in these responses in the ABA biosynthetic mutant notabilis (not), whereas ABA induced strong and prolonged increases in these responses in the BR biosynthetic mutant d^im compared with wild-type plants. ABA levels were reduced in the BR biosynthetic mutant but could be elevated by exogenous BR. Silencing of RBOH1 compromised BR-induced apoplastic H2O2 production, ABA accumulation, and PQ stress responses; however, ABA-induced PQ stress responses were largely unchanged in the RBOH1-silenced plants. BR induces stress tolerance involving a positive feedback mechanism in which BR induces a rapid and transient H2O2 production by NADPH oxidase. The process in turn triggers increased ABA biosynthesis, leading to further increases in H2O2 production and prolonged stress tolerance. ABA induces H2O2 production in both the apoplastic and chloroplastic compartments.

in Arabidopsis glucose signaling and abscisic acid biosynthesis and ..
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    Progress 10/01/03 to 10/01/04 Outputs The key regulated step in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis in ..

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    Abscisic acid root and leaf concentration in relation to biomass partitioning in salinized tomato ..

  • Physiology of citrus fruiting - SciELO

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato hijacks the Arabidopsis abscisic acid signalling pathway to cause disease

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methyl jasmonate 39924-52-2 - The Good Scents Company

Overexpression of genes that respond to drought stress is a seemingly attractive approach for improving drought resistance in crops. However, the consequences for both water-use efficiency and productivity must be considered if agronomic utility is sought. Here, we characterize two tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines (sp12 and sp5) that overexpress a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, the enzyme that catalyzes a key rate-limiting step in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. Both

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